Cellulose waste biomass is the most abundant and attractive substrate for "biorefinery strategies" that are aimed to produce high-value products (e.g. solvents, fuels, building blocks) by economically and environmentally sustainable fermentation processes. However, cellulose is highly recalcitrant to biodegradation and its conversion by biotechnological strategies currently requires economically inefficient multistep industrial processes. The need for dedicated cellulase production continues to be a major constraint to cost-effective processing of cellulosic biomass. Research efforts have been aimed at developing recombinant microorganisms with suitable characteristics for single step biomass fermentation (consolidated bioprocessing, CBP). Two paradigms have been applied for such, so far unsuccessful, attempts: a) “native cellulolytic strategies”, aimed at conferring high-value product properties to natural cellulolytic microorganisms; b) “recombinant cellulolytic strategies”, aimed to confer cellulolytic ability to microorganisms exhibiting high product yields and titers. By starting from the description of natural enzyme systems for plant biomass degradation and natural metabolic pathways for some of the most valuable product (i.e. butanol, ethanol, and hydrogen) biosynthesis, this review describes state-of-the-art bottlenecks and solutions for the development of recombinant microbial strains for cellulosic biofuel CBP by metabolic engineering. Complexed cellulases (i.e. cellulosomes) benefit from stronger proximity effects and show enhanced synergy on insoluble substrates (i.e. crystalline cellulose) with respect to free enzymes. For this reason, special attention was held on strategies involving cellulosome/designer cellulosome-bearing recombinant microorganisms.

Development of microorganisms for cellulose-biofuel consolidated bioprocessings: metabolic engineers’ tricks

MAZZOLI, Roberto
2012

Abstract

Cellulose waste biomass is the most abundant and attractive substrate for "biorefinery strategies" that are aimed to produce high-value products (e.g. solvents, fuels, building blocks) by economically and environmentally sustainable fermentation processes. However, cellulose is highly recalcitrant to biodegradation and its conversion by biotechnological strategies currently requires economically inefficient multistep industrial processes. The need for dedicated cellulase production continues to be a major constraint to cost-effective processing of cellulosic biomass. Research efforts have been aimed at developing recombinant microorganisms with suitable characteristics for single step biomass fermentation (consolidated bioprocessing, CBP). Two paradigms have been applied for such, so far unsuccessful, attempts: a) “native cellulolytic strategies”, aimed at conferring high-value product properties to natural cellulolytic microorganisms; b) “recombinant cellulolytic strategies”, aimed to confer cellulolytic ability to microorganisms exhibiting high product yields and titers. By starting from the description of natural enzyme systems for plant biomass degradation and natural metabolic pathways for some of the most valuable product (i.e. butanol, ethanol, and hydrogen) biosynthesis, this review describes state-of-the-art bottlenecks and solutions for the development of recombinant microbial strains for cellulosic biofuel CBP by metabolic engineering. Complexed cellulases (i.e. cellulosomes) benefit from stronger proximity effects and show enhanced synergy on insoluble substrates (i.e. crystalline cellulose) with respect to free enzymes. For this reason, special attention was held on strategies involving cellulosome/designer cellulosome-bearing recombinant microorganisms.
COMPUTATIONAL AND STRUCTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
3
e201210007
e201210007
http://dx.doi.org/10.5936/csbj.201210007
metabolic engineering; butanol; ethanol; hydrogen; cellulosome; cellulase
Mazzoli R.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/123948
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