The sunlight filter benzophenone-4 (BP-4) is present in surface waters as two prevailing forms, the singly deprotonated (HA) and the doubly deprotonated one (A2), with pKa2 ¼ 7.30 0.14 (m s, by dissociation of the phenolic group). In freshwater environments, BP-4 would mainly undergo degradation by reaction with OH and direct photolysis. The form HA has a second-order reaction rate constant with OH ðkOHÞ of (1.87 0.31)$ 1010 M1 s1 and direct photolysis quantum yield F equal to (3.2 0.6)$105. The form A2 has (8.46 0.24)$109 M1 s1 as the reaction rate constant with OH and (7.0 1.3)$105 as the photolysis quantum yield. The direct photolysis of HA likely proceeds via homolytic breaking of the OeH bond of the phenolic group to give the corresponding phenoxy radical, as suggested by laser flash photolysis experiments. Photochemical modelling shows that because of more efficient direct photolysis (due to both higher sunlight absorption and higher photolysis quantum yield), the A2 form can be degraded up to 3 times faster than HA in surface waters. An exception is represented by low-DOC (dissolved organic carbon) conditions, where the OH reaction dominates degradation and the transformation kinetics of HA is faster compared to A2. The half-life time of BP-4 in mid-latitude summertime would be in the range of days to weeks, depending on the environmental conditions. BP-4 also reacts with Br 2 , and a rate constant kBr 2 ;BP4 ¼ ð8:05 1:33Þ$108 M1 s1 was measured at pH 7.5. Model results show that reaction with Br 2 could be a potentially important transformation pathway of BP-4 in bromide-rich (e.g. seawater) and DOM-rich environments.

Photochemical processes involving the UV absorber benzophenone-4 (2-hydroxy-4- methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid) in aqueous solution: Reaction pathways and implications for surface waters

DE LAURENTIIS, ELISA;MINELLA, Marco;MINERO, Claudio;VIONE, Davide Vittorio
2013

Abstract

The sunlight filter benzophenone-4 (BP-4) is present in surface waters as two prevailing forms, the singly deprotonated (HA) and the doubly deprotonated one (A2), with pKa2 ¼ 7.30 0.14 (m s, by dissociation of the phenolic group). In freshwater environments, BP-4 would mainly undergo degradation by reaction with OH and direct photolysis. The form HA has a second-order reaction rate constant with OH ðkOHÞ of (1.87 0.31)$ 1010 M1 s1 and direct photolysis quantum yield F equal to (3.2 0.6)$105. The form A2 has (8.46 0.24)$109 M1 s1 as the reaction rate constant with OH and (7.0 1.3)$105 as the photolysis quantum yield. The direct photolysis of HA likely proceeds via homolytic breaking of the OeH bond of the phenolic group to give the corresponding phenoxy radical, as suggested by laser flash photolysis experiments. Photochemical modelling shows that because of more efficient direct photolysis (due to both higher sunlight absorption and higher photolysis quantum yield), the A2 form can be degraded up to 3 times faster than HA in surface waters. An exception is represented by low-DOC (dissolved organic carbon) conditions, where the OH reaction dominates degradation and the transformation kinetics of HA is faster compared to A2. The half-life time of BP-4 in mid-latitude summertime would be in the range of days to weeks, depending on the environmental conditions. BP-4 also reacts with Br 2 , and a rate constant kBr 2 ;BP4 ¼ ð8:05 1:33Þ$108 M1 s1 was measured at pH 7.5. Model results show that reaction with Br 2 could be a potentially important transformation pathway of BP-4 in bromide-rich (e.g. seawater) and DOM-rich environments.
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Environmental fate; Photogenerated radicals; Environmental modelling; Benzophenone-4; Environmental photochemistry; Emerging pollutants; Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)
Elisa De Laurentiis; Marco Minella; Mohamed Sarakha; Alessandro Marrese; Claudio Minero; Gilles Mailhot; Marcello Brigante; Davide Vione
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/141140
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