There has been increasing interest in the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine in recent years. In this context, the beneficial effects of MSCs have been ascribed mainly to a paracrine action rather than to direct replacement of the injured tissue. Indeed, MSCs produce a great variety of trophic and immunomodulatory factors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of growth factors and chemokines involved in stimulation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, enhancement of angiogenesis, and suppression of inflammatory and immune response. In addition, we discuss the emerging role of the extracellular vesicles released from MSCs as possible paracrine mediators.
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