Ectrodactyly, or Split Hand/Foot Malformation (SHFM), is a congenital condition characterized by the loss of central rays of hands and feet. The p63 and the DLX5;DLX6 transcription factors, expressed in the embryonic limb buds and ectoderm, are disease genes for these conditions. Mutations of p63 also cause the EEC (Ectodermal dysplasia-Ectrodactyly-Cleft lip/palate) syndrome, comprising SHFM. Ectrodactyly is linked to defects of the Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER) of the developing limb buds. FGF8 is the key signalling molecule in this process, able to direct proximo-distal growth and patterning of the skeletal primordial of the limbs. In the limb buds of both p63 and Dlx5;Dlx6 murine models of SHFM, the AER is poorly stratified and FGF8 expression is severely reduced. We show here that the FGF8 locus is a downstream target of DLX5 and that FGF8 counteracts Pin1- Np63 interaction. In vivo, lack of Pin1 leads to accumulation of the p63 protein in the embryonic limbs and ectoderm. We show also that Np63 protein stability is negatively regulated by the interaction with the prolyl-isomerase Pin1, via proteasome-mediated degradation; p63 mutant proteins associated to SHFM or EEC syndromes are resistant to Pin1 action. Thus, DLX5, p63, Pin1 and FGF8 participate to the same time- and location-restricted regulatory loop essential for AER stratification, hence for normal patterning and skeletal morphogenesis of the limb buds. These results shed new light on the molecular mechanisms at the basis of the SHFM and EEC limb malformations.

DLX5, FGF8 and the Pin1 isomerase control Np63 protein stability during limb development: a regulatory loop at the basis of the SHFM and EEC congenital malformations

GARAFFO, GIULIA;MERLO, Giorgio Roberto;
2014

Abstract

Ectrodactyly, or Split Hand/Foot Malformation (SHFM), is a congenital condition characterized by the loss of central rays of hands and feet. The p63 and the DLX5;DLX6 transcription factors, expressed in the embryonic limb buds and ectoderm, are disease genes for these conditions. Mutations of p63 also cause the EEC (Ectodermal dysplasia-Ectrodactyly-Cleft lip/palate) syndrome, comprising SHFM. Ectrodactyly is linked to defects of the Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER) of the developing limb buds. FGF8 is the key signalling molecule in this process, able to direct proximo-distal growth and patterning of the skeletal primordial of the limbs. In the limb buds of both p63 and Dlx5;Dlx6 murine models of SHFM, the AER is poorly stratified and FGF8 expression is severely reduced. We show here that the FGF8 locus is a downstream target of DLX5 and that FGF8 counteracts Pin1- Np63 interaction. In vivo, lack of Pin1 leads to accumulation of the p63 protein in the embryonic limbs and ectoderm. We show also that Np63 protein stability is negatively regulated by the interaction with the prolyl-isomerase Pin1, via proteasome-mediated degradation; p63 mutant proteins associated to SHFM or EEC syndromes are resistant to Pin1 action. Thus, DLX5, p63, Pin1 and FGF8 participate to the same time- and location-restricted regulatory loop essential for AER stratification, hence for normal patterning and skeletal morphogenesis of the limb buds. These results shed new light on the molecular mechanisms at the basis of the SHFM and EEC limb malformations.
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Michela Restelli; Teresa Lopardo; Nadia LoIacono; Giulia Garaffo; Daniele Conte; Alessandra Rustighi; Marco Napoli; Gianni Del Sal; David Perez-Morga; Antonio Costanzo; Giorgio Merlo; Luisa Guerrini
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/148702
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