Liver fibrogenesis is a dynamic and highly integrated molecular, tissue and cellular process that during the course of a chronic liver disease (CLD) leads progressively to an excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in an attempt to limit the consequences of chronic parenchymal injury. Irrespective of etiology, liver fibrogenesis is sustained and modulated by an intense cross talk occurring between different hepatic cell populations that involves the synthesis and release of several mediators, including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, adipokines, vasoactive agents and plasma proteins. In this scenario a major pro-fibrogenic role is played by a heterogeneous population of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive cells defined as hepatic myofibroblasts (MFs). Hepatic MFs are highly proliferative and contractile cells, primarily responsible for excess deposition of ECM components and involved in ECM altered remodeling observed in CLDs. MFs also represent a unique and critical cellular crossroad able to integrate incoming paracrine or autocrine signals, released from all hepatic cell populations involved or available in the microenvironment, as well as to synthetize and release mediators which sustain and perpetuate fibrogenesis, chronic inflammatory response and neo-angiogenesis. This review has been designed to offer critical knowledge on hepatic MFs, including terminology, essential definitions and characterization of MFs, with a focus on the origin of these cells (mainly from hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts or, to a lesser extent, bone marrow-derived cells), the process of activation and the functional responses that these cells can operate in the fibrogenic progression of CLDs.

Hepatic myofibroblasts and fibrogenic progression of chronic liver diseases

NOVO, ERICA
First
;
CANNITO, STEFANIA;MORELLO, ELISABETTA;PATERNOSTRO, CLAUDIA;BOCCA, Claudia;MIGLIETTA, Antonella;PAROLA, Maurizio
Last
2015-01-01

Abstract

Liver fibrogenesis is a dynamic and highly integrated molecular, tissue and cellular process that during the course of a chronic liver disease (CLD) leads progressively to an excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in an attempt to limit the consequences of chronic parenchymal injury. Irrespective of etiology, liver fibrogenesis is sustained and modulated by an intense cross talk occurring between different hepatic cell populations that involves the synthesis and release of several mediators, including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, adipokines, vasoactive agents and plasma proteins. In this scenario a major pro-fibrogenic role is played by a heterogeneous population of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive cells defined as hepatic myofibroblasts (MFs). Hepatic MFs are highly proliferative and contractile cells, primarily responsible for excess deposition of ECM components and involved in ECM altered remodeling observed in CLDs. MFs also represent a unique and critical cellular crossroad able to integrate incoming paracrine or autocrine signals, released from all hepatic cell populations involved or available in the microenvironment, as well as to synthetize and release mediators which sustain and perpetuate fibrogenesis, chronic inflammatory response and neo-angiogenesis. This review has been designed to offer critical knowledge on hepatic MFs, including terminology, essential definitions and characterization of MFs, with a focus on the origin of these cells (mainly from hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts or, to a lesser extent, bone marrow-derived cells), the process of activation and the functional responses that these cells can operate in the fibrogenic progression of CLDs.
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http://www.hh.um.es
Hepatic myofibroblasts, Hepatic stellate cells, Portal myofibroblasts, Liver fibrogenesis, Chronic liver diseases, Liver angiogenesis
Novo, Erica; Cannito, Stefania; Morello, Elisabetta; Paternostro, Claudia; Bocca, Claudia; Miglietta, Antonella; Parola, Maurizio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1521251
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