Chemotherapy is currently the standard of care for non-oncogene-driven advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Due to improvements in chemotherapeutic choices and supportive care, patients currently typically undergo multiple lines of chemotherapy as their disease progresses. Although treatments have improved over recent years, limited benefits are seen, especially in patients receiving later-line chemotherapy, as response rates can be low, response duration short and survival poor. Furthermore, only a small percentage of patients derive benefit from later-line therapy, with most experiencing deteriorating quality of life and significant toxicities. More recently, molecular targeted therapies have provided improvements in outcomes. However, these treatments only offer a clear benefit in subsets of tumours harbouring the appropriate genomic alteration (mutation, amplification, translocation). Most of the genomic abnormalities susceptible to therapeutic intervention are detected in adenocarcinoma, mainly in never smokers, while alterations in the genome of other histological subtypes are known but specific agents targeting these alterations have yet to be developed. Thus, the therapeutic management of these subtypes represents an ongoing challenge. Recent advances in immunotherapy have highlighted the potential of immuno-oncology based treatments for NSCLC, offering the potential to provide durable responses and outcomes regardless of histology or mutation status. This review discusses the current unmet medical needs in NSCLC, the limits of current first-line and later-line chemotherapy and targeted agents, and the emergence of new therapeutic strategies.

Addressing the unmet need in lung cancer: The potential of immuno-oncology

SCAGLIOTTI, Giorgio Vittorio
First
;
BIRONZO, Paolo;
2015

Abstract

Chemotherapy is currently the standard of care for non-oncogene-driven advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Due to improvements in chemotherapeutic choices and supportive care, patients currently typically undergo multiple lines of chemotherapy as their disease progresses. Although treatments have improved over recent years, limited benefits are seen, especially in patients receiving later-line chemotherapy, as response rates can be low, response duration short and survival poor. Furthermore, only a small percentage of patients derive benefit from later-line therapy, with most experiencing deteriorating quality of life and significant toxicities. More recently, molecular targeted therapies have provided improvements in outcomes. However, these treatments only offer a clear benefit in subsets of tumours harbouring the appropriate genomic alteration (mutation, amplification, translocation). Most of the genomic abnormalities susceptible to therapeutic intervention are detected in adenocarcinoma, mainly in never smokers, while alterations in the genome of other histological subtypes are known but specific agents targeting these alterations have yet to be developed. Thus, the therapeutic management of these subtypes represents an ongoing challenge. Recent advances in immunotherapy have highlighted the potential of immuno-oncology based treatments for NSCLC, offering the potential to provide durable responses and outcomes regardless of histology or mutation status. This review discusses the current unmet medical needs in NSCLC, the limits of current first-line and later-line chemotherapy and targeted agents, and the emergence of new therapeutic strategies.
41
6
465
475
http://www.elsevier.com/inca/publications/store/6/2/3/0/2/2/index.htt
CTLA-4; Immune checkpoint blockade; Immunotherapy; NSCLC; PD-1; PD-L1; Oncology; Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Imaging
Scagliotti, G.V; Bironzo, P.; Vansteenkiste, J.F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1522518
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