The aquatic environmental fate of ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), one of the most used UVB filters worldwide, was studied by assessing its environmental persistence and photoinduced transformations. The role of direct and indirect photolysis was evaluated. Direct photolysis was shown to play a key role, and this process is expected to be the main attenuation route of EHMC in sunlit surface waters. In contrast, the reaction with •OH radicals would be negligible and that with 3CDOM* would at most be a secondary process. The measurement of the quantum yield of direct photolysis and of the rate constants of reaction with photogenerated transient species (or, sometimes, the use of reasonable values for the latter) allowed the prediction of the EHMC half-life time in surface waters, by means of a validated photochemical model. The predicted EHMC lifetimeis of the order of hours to a fewdays in fair-weather summertime, and themain factors controlling the EHMC phototransformation in sunlit surface waters would be the water depth and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. The formation of transformation products (TPs)was followed as well via HPLC/HRMS. Three TPs were detected in the samples exposed to UVA radiation, while one additional TP was detected in the samples exposed to UVB radiation. The detected TPs comprised 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, a hydroxylated derivative and dimeric species. Through the use of heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2, seven additional TPs were identified, most of them resulting from the further degradation of primary TPs formed through direct photolysis and that might be detected in aquatic systems as well. The photodegradation of EHMC in the presence of TiO2 yielded more toxic TPs than the parent compound (as determined with the Vibrio fischeri Microtox assay). The increased toxicity is partially accounted for by the formation of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde.

The role of direct photolysis and indirect photochemistry in the environmental fate of ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) in surface water.

VIONE, Davide Vittorio;CALZA, Paola;FABBRI, DEBORA;SANTORO, VALENTINA;MEDANA, Claudio
Last
2015-01-01

Abstract

The aquatic environmental fate of ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), one of the most used UVB filters worldwide, was studied by assessing its environmental persistence and photoinduced transformations. The role of direct and indirect photolysis was evaluated. Direct photolysis was shown to play a key role, and this process is expected to be the main attenuation route of EHMC in sunlit surface waters. In contrast, the reaction with •OH radicals would be negligible and that with 3CDOM* would at most be a secondary process. The measurement of the quantum yield of direct photolysis and of the rate constants of reaction with photogenerated transient species (or, sometimes, the use of reasonable values for the latter) allowed the prediction of the EHMC half-life time in surface waters, by means of a validated photochemical model. The predicted EHMC lifetimeis of the order of hours to a fewdays in fair-weather summertime, and themain factors controlling the EHMC phototransformation in sunlit surface waters would be the water depth and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. The formation of transformation products (TPs)was followed as well via HPLC/HRMS. Three TPs were detected in the samples exposed to UVA radiation, while one additional TP was detected in the samples exposed to UVB radiation. The detected TPs comprised 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, a hydroxylated derivative and dimeric species. Through the use of heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2, seven additional TPs were identified, most of them resulting from the further degradation of primary TPs formed through direct photolysis and that might be detected in aquatic systems as well. The photodegradation of EHMC in the presence of TiO2 yielded more toxic TPs than the parent compound (as determined with the Vibrio fischeri Microtox assay). The increased toxicity is partially accounted for by the formation of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde.
2015
537
58
68
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969715305052
Ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate, Sunscreen, Photolysis, Transformation products
Vione, D.; Calza, P.; Galli, F.; Fabbri, D.; Santoro, V.; Medana, C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1533532
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