PURPOSE: Control of thyroid function in hyperthyroid women during pregnancy is based on antithyroid drugs (ATD) [propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI)]. While a teratogenic effect has been suggested for MMI and, more recently, for PTU, a clear demonstration is still lacking. Aim of this study was to assess the safety of ATD during pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 379 pregnancies were retrospectively recruited in eight Italian Departments of Endocrinology and divided in five groups: (1) MMI-treated and euthyroid throughout pregnancy (n = 89); (2) MMI-treated and hyperthyroid on at least two occasions (n = 35); (3) PTU-treated women and euthyroid throughout pregnancy (n = 32); (4) PTU-treated women and hyperthyroid on at least two occasions (n = 20); and (5) non-ATD-treated (n = 203). Data on maternal thyroid function, miscarriages, type of delivery, neonatal weight, length and TSH, perinatal complications and congenital malformation were analyzed. RESULTS: The gestational age at delivery, the rate of vaginal delivery, neonatal weight, length and neonatal TSH did not significantly differ among groups. In all groups, the rates of spontaneous miscarriage and of major congenital malformations were not higher than in the general population. No newborns were born with a phenotype similar to those described in the "MMI embryopathy". CONCLUSIONS: While a clear demonstration of a teratogenic effect of MMI is currently lacking, it seems reasonable to follow the current guidelines and advice for PTU treatment in hyperthyroid women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Further, large and prospective worldwide studies will be needed to fully clarify the issue of ATD safety during pregnancy.

Pregnancy outcome in women treated with methimazole or propylthiouracil during pregnancy

ORLANDI, Fabio;
2015

Abstract

PURPOSE: Control of thyroid function in hyperthyroid women during pregnancy is based on antithyroid drugs (ATD) [propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI)]. While a teratogenic effect has been suggested for MMI and, more recently, for PTU, a clear demonstration is still lacking. Aim of this study was to assess the safety of ATD during pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 379 pregnancies were retrospectively recruited in eight Italian Departments of Endocrinology and divided in five groups: (1) MMI-treated and euthyroid throughout pregnancy (n = 89); (2) MMI-treated and hyperthyroid on at least two occasions (n = 35); (3) PTU-treated women and euthyroid throughout pregnancy (n = 32); (4) PTU-treated women and hyperthyroid on at least two occasions (n = 20); and (5) non-ATD-treated (n = 203). Data on maternal thyroid function, miscarriages, type of delivery, neonatal weight, length and TSH, perinatal complications and congenital malformation were analyzed. RESULTS: The gestational age at delivery, the rate of vaginal delivery, neonatal weight, length and neonatal TSH did not significantly differ among groups. In all groups, the rates of spontaneous miscarriage and of major congenital malformations were not higher than in the general population. No newborns were born with a phenotype similar to those described in the "MMI embryopathy". CONCLUSIONS: While a clear demonstration of a teratogenic effect of MMI is currently lacking, it seems reasonable to follow the current guidelines and advice for PTU treatment in hyperthyroid women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Further, large and prospective worldwide studies will be needed to fully clarify the issue of ATD safety during pregnancy.
JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION
977
985
Gianetti, E; Russo, L; Orlandi, F; Chiovato, L; Giusti, M; Benvenga, S; Moleti, M; Vermiglio, F; Macchia, Pe; Vitale, M; Regalbuto, C; Centanni, M; Martino, E; Vitti, P; Tonacchera, M
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1548562
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