Patients with autonomic failure are characterized by orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension, high blood pressure variability, blunted heart rate variability, and often have a "non-dipping" or "reverse dipping" pattern on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. These alterations may lead to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular changes, similar to the target organ damage found in hypertension. Often patients with autonomic failure are on treatment with anti-hypotensive drugs, which may worsen supine hypertension. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence for cardiac, vascular, renal, and cerebrovascular damage in patients with autonomic failure.
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