In recent years, in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), several new drugs have been approved that prolong overall survival, including enzalutamide and abiraterone, two new-generation hormonal therapies. Despite the demonstrated benefit of these agents, not all patients with CRPC are responsive to treatment, the gain in median progression-free survival with these therapies compared to standard of care is, rather disappointingly, still less than six months and the appearance of acquired resistance is almost universal. Approximately one third of patients treated with abiraterone and 25% of those treated with enzalutamide show primary resistance to these agents. Even if the mechanisms of resistance to these agents are not fully defined, many hypotheses are emerging, including systemic and intratumoral androgen biosynthesis up-regulation, androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations and amplifications, alteration of pathways involved in cross-talk with AR signaling, glucocorticoid receptor overexpression, neuroendocrine differentiation, immune system deregulation and others.

Understanding and overcoming the mechanisms of primary and acquired resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide in castration resistant prostate cancer

BUTTIGLIERO, CONSUELO
First
;
TUCCI, Marcello;BERTAGLIA, VALENTINA;VIGNANI, FRANCESCA;BIRONZO, Paolo;DI MAIO, Massimo;SCAGLIOTTI, Giorgio Vittorio
Last
2015

Abstract

In recent years, in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), several new drugs have been approved that prolong overall survival, including enzalutamide and abiraterone, two new-generation hormonal therapies. Despite the demonstrated benefit of these agents, not all patients with CRPC are responsive to treatment, the gain in median progression-free survival with these therapies compared to standard of care is, rather disappointingly, still less than six months and the appearance of acquired resistance is almost universal. Approximately one third of patients treated with abiraterone and 25% of those treated with enzalutamide show primary resistance to these agents. Even if the mechanisms of resistance to these agents are not fully defined, many hypotheses are emerging, including systemic and intratumoral androgen biosynthesis up-regulation, androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations and amplifications, alteration of pathways involved in cross-talk with AR signaling, glucocorticoid receptor overexpression, neuroendocrine differentiation, immune system deregulation and others.
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10
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892
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2015.08.002
Abiraterone; Enzalutamide; Mechanisms of resistance; Prostate cancer; Androgens; Androstenes; Antineoplastic Agents; Disease-Free Survival; Gene Amplification; Humans; Male; Mutation; Phenylthiohydantoin; Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant; Receptors, Androgen; Receptors, Glucocorticoid; Up-Regulation; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm; Oncology; Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Imaging; Medicine (all)
Buttigliero, Consuelo; Tucci, Marcello; Bertaglia, Valentina; Vignani, Francesca; Bironzo, Paolo; Di Maio, Massimo; Scagliotti, Giorgio Vittorio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1564876
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