To elucidate the genetic bases of mycorrhizal lifestyle evolution, we sequenced new fungal genomes, including 1 13 ectomycorrhizal (ECM), orchid (ORM) and ericoid (ERM) species, and five saprotrophs, which we analyzed along with other fungal genomes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have a reduced complement of genes encoding plant cell wall–degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), as compared to their ancestral wood decayers. Nevertheless, they have retained a unique array of PCWDEs, thus suggesting that they possess diverse abilities to decompose lignocellulose. Similar functional categories of nonorthologous genes are induced in symbiosis. Of induced genes, 7–38% are orphan genes, including genes that encode secreted effector-like proteins. Convergent evolution of the mycorrhizal habit in fungi occurred via the repeated evolution of a ‘symbiosis toolkit’, with reduced numbers of PCWDEs and lineage-specific suites of mycorrhiza-induced genes.

Convergent losses of decay mechanisms and rapid turnover of symbiosis genes in mycorrhizal mutualists

GIRLANDA, Mariangela;MARTINO, ELENA;PEROTTO, Silvia;
2015

Abstract

To elucidate the genetic bases of mycorrhizal lifestyle evolution, we sequenced new fungal genomes, including 1 13 ectomycorrhizal (ECM), orchid (ORM) and ericoid (ERM) species, and five saprotrophs, which we analyzed along with other fungal genomes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have a reduced complement of genes encoding plant cell wall–degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), as compared to their ancestral wood decayers. Nevertheless, they have retained a unique array of PCWDEs, thus suggesting that they possess diverse abilities to decompose lignocellulose. Similar functional categories of nonorthologous genes are induced in symbiosis. Of induced genes, 7–38% are orphan genes, including genes that encode secreted effector-like proteins. Convergent evolution of the mycorrhizal habit in fungi occurred via the repeated evolution of a ‘symbiosis toolkit’, with reduced numbers of PCWDEs and lineage-specific suites of mycorrhiza-induced genes.
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Annegret Kohler;Alan Kuo;Laszlo G Nagy;Emmanuelle Morin;Kerrie W Barry;Francois Buscot;Björn Canbäck;Cindy Choi;Nicolas Cichocki;Alicia Clum;Jan Colpaert;Alex Copeland;Mauricio D Costa;Jeanne Doré;Dimitrios Floudas;Gilles Gay;Mariangela Girlanda;Bernard Henrissat;Sylvie Herrmann;Jaqueline Hess;Nils Högberg;Tomas Johansson;Hassine-Radhouane Khouja;Kurt LaButti;Urs Lahrmann;Anthony Levasseur;Erika A Lindquist;Anna Lipzen;Roland Marmeisse;Elena Martino;Claude Murat;Chew Y Ngan;Uwe Nehls;Jonathan M Plett;Anne Pringle;Robin A Ohm;Silvia Perotto;Martina Peter;Robert Riley;Francois Rineau;Joske Ruytinx;Asaf Salamov;Firoz Shah;Hui Sun;Mika Tarkka;Andrew Tritt;Claire Veneault-Fourrey;Alga Zuccaro;Anders Tunlid;Igor V Grigoriev;David S Hibbett;Francis Martin
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/158800
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