WHO global strategy is to end tuberculosis epidemic by 2035. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic studies are increasingly performed and might confirm their potential role in optimizing treatment outcome in specific settings and populations. Insufficient drug exposure seems to be a relevant factor in tuberculosis outcome and for the risk of phenotypic resistance. Areas covered: This review discusses available pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic data of first and second-line antitubercular agents in relation to efficacy and toxicity. Pharmacodynamic implications of optimized drugs and new options regimens are reviewed. Moreover a specific session describes innovative investigations on drug penetration. Expert opinion: The optimal use of available antitubercular drugs is paramount for tuberculosis control and eradication. Whilst trials are still on-going, higher rifampicin doses should be reserved to treatment for tubercular meningitis. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring with limiting sampling strategies is advised in patients at risk of failure or with slow treatment response. Further studies are needed in order to provide definitive recommendations of pharmacogenetic-based individualization: however lower isoniazid doses in NAT2 slow acetylators and higher rifampicin doses in individuals with SLCO1B1 loss of function genes are promising strategies. Finally in order to inform tailored strategies we need more data on tissue drug penetration and pharmacological modelling.

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of anti-tubercular drugs: a tool for treatment optimization?

Motta, Ilaria;Calcagno, Andrea;Bonora, Stefano
Last
2017-01-01

Abstract

WHO global strategy is to end tuberculosis epidemic by 2035. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic studies are increasingly performed and might confirm their potential role in optimizing treatment outcome in specific settings and populations. Insufficient drug exposure seems to be a relevant factor in tuberculosis outcome and for the risk of phenotypic resistance. Areas covered: This review discusses available pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic data of first and second-line antitubercular agents in relation to efficacy and toxicity. Pharmacodynamic implications of optimized drugs and new options regimens are reviewed. Moreover a specific session describes innovative investigations on drug penetration. Expert opinion: The optimal use of available antitubercular drugs is paramount for tuberculosis control and eradication. Whilst trials are still on-going, higher rifampicin doses should be reserved to treatment for tubercular meningitis. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring with limiting sampling strategies is advised in patients at risk of failure or with slow treatment response. Further studies are needed in order to provide definitive recommendations of pharmacogenetic-based individualization: however lower isoniazid doses in NAT2 slow acetylators and higher rifampicin doses in individuals with SLCO1B1 loss of function genes are promising strategies. Finally in order to inform tailored strategies we need more data on tissue drug penetration and pharmacological modelling.
2017
14
1
1
10
SLCO1B1; Tuberculosis; acetylator status; high-dose rifampicin; lesion penetration; therapeutic drug monitoring
Motta, Ilaria; Calcagno, Andrea; Bonora, Stefano
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1655080
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