The Citron protein was originally identified for its capability to specifically bind the active form of RhoA small GTPase, leading to the simplistic hypothesis that it may work as a RhoA downstream effector in actin remodeling. More than two decades later, a much more complex picture has emerged. In particular, it has become clear that in animals, and especially in mammals, the functions of the Citron gene (CIT) are intimately linked to many aspects of central nervous system (CNS) development and function, although the gene is broadly expressed. More specifically, CIT encodes two main isoforms, Citron-kinase (CIT-K) and Citron-N (CIT-N), characterized by complementary expression pattern and different functions. Moreover, in many of their activities, CIT proteins act more as upstream regulators than as downstream effectors of RhoA. Finally it has been found that, besides working through actin, CIT proteins have many crucial functional interactions with the microtubule cytoskeleton and may directly affect genome stability. In this review, we will summarize these advances and illustrate their actual or potential relevance for CNS diseases, including microcephaly and psychiatric disorders.

Of rings and spines: The multiple facets of Citron proteins in neural development

Bianchi, Federico T;Gai, Marta;Berto, Gaia E;Di Cunto, Ferdinando
Last
2017-01-01

Abstract

The Citron protein was originally identified for its capability to specifically bind the active form of RhoA small GTPase, leading to the simplistic hypothesis that it may work as a RhoA downstream effector in actin remodeling. More than two decades later, a much more complex picture has emerged. In particular, it has become clear that in animals, and especially in mammals, the functions of the Citron gene (CIT) are intimately linked to many aspects of central nervous system (CNS) development and function, although the gene is broadly expressed. More specifically, CIT encodes two main isoforms, Citron-kinase (CIT-K) and Citron-N (CIT-N), characterized by complementary expression pattern and different functions. Moreover, in many of their activities, CIT proteins act more as upstream regulators than as downstream effectors of RhoA. Finally it has been found that, besides working through actin, CIT proteins have many crucial functional interactions with the microtubule cytoskeleton and may directly affect genome stability. In this review, we will summarize these advances and illustrate their actual or potential relevance for CNS diseases, including microcephaly and psychiatric disorders.
2017
1
9
Citron kinase; Microcephaly; Neural differentiation; Neurogenesis; RhoA
Bianchi, Federico T; Gai, Marta; Berto, Gaia E; Di Cunto, Ferdinando
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1655654
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