Rationale: Ionic liquids (ILs) are a subject of active research in the field of alternative solvents. We studied the behaviour of a piperidine IL, 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium tetrafluoroborate (BMPA), through the elucidation of its transformation products (TPs) in water. Methods: The transformation pathways of BMPA were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap instrument on the basis of mass defect filtering. TPs of BMPA were identified by fragmentation patterns and accurate mass measurements. Results: The separation and identification of 32 TPs was achieved. BMPA can be oxidized at different positions in the alkyl chains. The ultimate products corresponds to N-methyl-piperidinium and some byproducts involving ring-opening. Tests of acute toxicity, evaluated with Vibrio Fischeri bacteria, show that BMPA transformation proceeds through the formation of slightly harmful compounds. Conclusions: Results showed that the main transformation pathways of BMPA were alkyl chain hydroxylation/shortening and de-alkylation, and that HPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap can serve as an important analytical platform to gather the unknown TPs of ILs.

High-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry for the characterization of transformation products of ionic liquids

Fabbri, Debora;Calza, Paola;Santoro, Valentina;Medana, Claudio
Last
2017

Abstract

Rationale: Ionic liquids (ILs) are a subject of active research in the field of alternative solvents. We studied the behaviour of a piperidine IL, 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium tetrafluoroborate (BMPA), through the elucidation of its transformation products (TPs) in water. Methods: The transformation pathways of BMPA were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap instrument on the basis of mass defect filtering. TPs of BMPA were identified by fragmentation patterns and accurate mass measurements. Results: The separation and identification of 32 TPs was achieved. BMPA can be oxidized at different positions in the alkyl chains. The ultimate products corresponds to N-methyl-piperidinium and some byproducts involving ring-opening. Tests of acute toxicity, evaluated with Vibrio Fischeri bacteria, show that BMPA transformation proceeds through the formation of slightly harmful compounds. Conclusions: Results showed that the main transformation pathways of BMPA were alkyl chain hydroxylation/shortening and de-alkylation, and that HPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap can serve as an important analytical platform to gather the unknown TPs of ILs.
31
23
2011
2020
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-0231
Analytical Chemistry; Spectroscopy; Organic Chemistry
Fabbri, Debora; Calza, Paola; Noè, Giorgio; Santoro, Valentina; Medana, Claudio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1659584
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