Lentiviruses are infectious agents of a number of animal species, including sheep, goats, horses, monkeys, cows, and cats, in addition to humans. As in the human case, the host immune response fails to control the establishment of chronic persistent infection that finally leads to a specific disease development. Despite intensive research on the development of lentivirus vaccines, it is still not clear which immune responses can protect against infection. Viral mutations resulting in escape from T-cell or antibody-mediated responses are the basis of the immune failure to control the infection. The innate immune response provides the first line of defense against viral infections in an antigen-independent manner. Antiviral innate responses are conducted by dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells, often targeted by lentiviruses, and intrinsic antiviral mechanisms exerted by all cells. Intrinsic responses depend on the recognition of the viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), and the signaling cascades leading to an antiviral state by inducing the expression of antiviral proteins, including restriction factors. This review describes the latest advances on innate immunity related to the infection by animal lentiviruses, centered on small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), and feline (FIV) and bovine immunodeficiency viruses (BIV), specifically focusing on the antiviral role of the major restriction factors described thus far

Prospects in innate immune responses as potential control strategies against non-primate lentiviruses

Rosati, Sergio;
2018-01-01

Abstract

Lentiviruses are infectious agents of a number of animal species, including sheep, goats, horses, monkeys, cows, and cats, in addition to humans. As in the human case, the host immune response fails to control the establishment of chronic persistent infection that finally leads to a specific disease development. Despite intensive research on the development of lentivirus vaccines, it is still not clear which immune responses can protect against infection. Viral mutations resulting in escape from T-cell or antibody-mediated responses are the basis of the immune failure to control the infection. The innate immune response provides the first line of defense against viral infections in an antigen-independent manner. Antiviral innate responses are conducted by dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells, often targeted by lentiviruses, and intrinsic antiviral mechanisms exerted by all cells. Intrinsic responses depend on the recognition of the viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), and the signaling cascades leading to an antiviral state by inducing the expression of antiviral proteins, including restriction factors. This review describes the latest advances on innate immunity related to the infection by animal lentiviruses, centered on small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), and feline (FIV) and bovine immunodeficiency viruses (BIV), specifically focusing on the antiviral role of the major restriction factors described thus far
2018
10
8
1
33
http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/10/8/435/pdf
Control strategies; Innate immunity; Non-primate lentivirus; Restriction factors; Animals; Cats; Cattle; Dendritic Cells; Gene Expression Regulation; Goats; Horses; Immunodeficiency Virus, Bovine; Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline; Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine; Interferon Regulatory Factors; Killer Cells, Natural; Lentivirus Infections; Macrophages; Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules; Receptors, Pattern Recognition; Sheep; T-Lymphocytes; Immunity, Innate; Infectious Diseases; Virology
de Pablo-Maiso, Lorena; Doménech, Ana; Echeverría, Irache; Gómez-Arrebola, Carmen; de Andrés, Damián; Rosati, Sergio; Gómez-Lucia, Esperanza; Reina, Ramsés*
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
88a viruses 2018.pdf

Accesso aperto

Tipo di file: PDF EDITORIALE
Dimensione 3.36 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
3.36 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1683618
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 7
  • Scopus 17
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 16
social impact