KEY POINTS: Tymothy syndrome (TS) is a multisystem disorder featuring cardiac arrhythmias, autism and adrenal gland dysfunction that originates from a de novo point mutation in the gene encoding the Cav1.2 (CACNA1C) L-type channel. To study the role of Cav1.2 channel signals in autism, the autistic TS2-neo mouse has been generated bearing the G406R point-mutation associated with TS type-2. Using heterozygous TS2-neo mice, we report that the G406R mutation reduces the rate of inactivation and shifts leftward the activation and inactivation of L-type channels, causing marked increase of resting Ca2+ influx ('window' Ca2+ current). The increased 'window current' causes marked reduction of NaV channel density, switches normal tonic firing to abnormal burst firing, reduces mitochondrial metabolism, induces cell swelling and decreases catecholamine release. Overnight incubations with nifedipine rescue NaV channel density, normal firing and the quantity of catecholamine released. We provide evidence that chromaffin cell malfunction derives from altered Cav1.2 channel gating. ABSTRACT: L-type voltage-gated calcium (Cav1) channels have a key role in long-term synaptic plasticity, sensory transduction, muscle contraction and hormone release. A point mutation in the gene encoding Cav1.2 (CACNA1C) causes Tymothy syndrome (TS), a multisystem disorder featuring cardiac arrhythmias, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and adrenal gland dysfunction. In the more severe type-2 form (TS2), the missense mutation G406R is on exon 8 coding for the IS6-helix of the Cav1.2 channel. The mutation causes reduced inactivation and induces autism. How this occurs and how Cav1.2 gating-changes alter cell excitability, neuronal firing and hormone release on a molecular basis is still largely unknown. Here, using the TS2-neo mouse model of TS we show that the G406R mutation altered excitability and reduced secretory activity in adrenal chromaffin cells (CCs). Specifically, the TS2 mutation reduced the rate of voltage-dependent inactivation and shifted leftward the activation and steady-state inactivation of L-type channels. This markedly increased the resting 'window' Ca2+ current that caused an increased percentage of CCs undergoing abnormal action potential (AP) burst firing, cell swelling, reduced mitochondrial metabolism and decreased catecholamine release. The increased 'window' Ca2+ current caused also decreased NaV channel density and increased steady-state inactivation, which contributed to the increased abnormal burst firing. Overnight incubation with the L-type channel blocker nifedipine rescued the normal AP firing of CCs, the density of functioning NaV channels and their steady-state inactivation. We provide evidence that CC malfunction derives from the altered Cav1.2 channel gating and that dihydropyridines are potential therapeutics for ASD.

Impaired chromaffin cell excitability and exocytosis in autistic Timothy syndrome TS2-neo mouse rescued by L-type calcium channel blockers

Calorio, Chiara;Gavello, Daniela;Guarina, Laura;Salio, Chiara;Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco;Riganti, Chiara;Bianchi, Federico Tommaso;Defilippi, Paola;Balzac, Fiorella;Turco, Emilia;Carbone, Emilio
2019

Abstract

KEY POINTS: Tymothy syndrome (TS) is a multisystem disorder featuring cardiac arrhythmias, autism and adrenal gland dysfunction that originates from a de novo point mutation in the gene encoding the Cav1.2 (CACNA1C) L-type channel. To study the role of Cav1.2 channel signals in autism, the autistic TS2-neo mouse has been generated bearing the G406R point-mutation associated with TS type-2. Using heterozygous TS2-neo mice, we report that the G406R mutation reduces the rate of inactivation and shifts leftward the activation and inactivation of L-type channels, causing marked increase of resting Ca2+ influx ('window' Ca2+ current). The increased 'window current' causes marked reduction of NaV channel density, switches normal tonic firing to abnormal burst firing, reduces mitochondrial metabolism, induces cell swelling and decreases catecholamine release. Overnight incubations with nifedipine rescue NaV channel density, normal firing and the quantity of catecholamine released. We provide evidence that chromaffin cell malfunction derives from altered Cav1.2 channel gating. ABSTRACT: L-type voltage-gated calcium (Cav1) channels have a key role in long-term synaptic plasticity, sensory transduction, muscle contraction and hormone release. A point mutation in the gene encoding Cav1.2 (CACNA1C) causes Tymothy syndrome (TS), a multisystem disorder featuring cardiac arrhythmias, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and adrenal gland dysfunction. In the more severe type-2 form (TS2), the missense mutation G406R is on exon 8 coding for the IS6-helix of the Cav1.2 channel. The mutation causes reduced inactivation and induces autism. How this occurs and how Cav1.2 gating-changes alter cell excitability, neuronal firing and hormone release on a molecular basis is still largely unknown. Here, using the TS2-neo mouse model of TS we show that the G406R mutation altered excitability and reduced secretory activity in adrenal chromaffin cells (CCs). Specifically, the TS2 mutation reduced the rate of voltage-dependent inactivation and shifted leftward the activation and steady-state inactivation of L-type channels. This markedly increased the resting 'window' Ca2+ current that caused an increased percentage of CCs undergoing abnormal action potential (AP) burst firing, cell swelling, reduced mitochondrial metabolism and decreased catecholamine release. The increased 'window' Ca2+ current caused also decreased NaV channel density and increased steady-state inactivation, which contributed to the increased abnormal burst firing. Overnight incubation with the L-type channel blocker nifedipine rescued the normal AP firing of CCs, the density of functioning NaV channels and their steady-state inactivation. We provide evidence that CC malfunction derives from the altered Cav1.2 channel gating and that dihydropyridines are potential therapeutics for ASD.
597
6
1705
1733
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1469-7793
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418779/
burst firing; catecholamine secretion; Cav1.2 calcium channels; Nav sodium channels; Physiology
Calorio, Chiara; Gavello, Daniela; Guarina, Laura; Salio, Chiara; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco; Riganti, Chiara; Bianchi, Federico Tommaso; Hofer, Nadja T.; Tuluc, Petronel; Obermair, Gerald J.; Defilippi, Paola; Balzac, Fiorella; Turco, Emilia; Bett, Glenna C.; Rasmusson, Randall L.; Carbone, Emilio*
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1694883
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