Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an auto-immune condition characterized by the loss of pancreatic β-cells. The curative approach for highly selected patients is the pancreas or the pancreatic islet transplantation. Nevertheless, these options are limited by a growing shortage of donor organs and by the requirement of immunosuppression.Xenotransplantation of porcine islets has been extensively investigated. Nevertheless, the strong xenoimmunity and the risk of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses, have limited their application in clinic. Generation of β-like cells from stem cells is one of the most promising strategies in regenerative medicine. Embryonic, and more recently, adult stem cells are currently the most promising cell sources exploited to generate functional β-cells in vitro. A number of studies demonstrated that stem cells could generate functional pancreatic organoids (POs), able to restore normoglycemia when implanted in different preclinical diabetic models. Nevertheless, a gradual loss of function and cell dead are commonly detected when POs are transplanted in immunocompetent animals. So far, the main issue to be solved is the post-transplanted islet loss, due to the host immune attack. To avoid this hurdle, nanotechnology has provided a number of polymers currently under investigation for islet micro and macro-encapsulation. These new approaches, besides conferring PO immune protection, are able to supply oxygen and nutrients and to preserve PO morphology and long-term viability.Herein, we summarize the current knowledge on bioengineered POs and the stem cell differentiation platforms. We also discuss the in vitro strategies used to generate functional POs, and the protocols currently used to confer immune-protection against the host immune attack (micro- and macro-encapsulation). In addition, the most relevant ongoing clinical trials, and the most relevant hurdles met to move towards clinical application are revised.

Generation of Human Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Organoids (POs) for Regenerative Medicine.

Gomez Y;Brizzi MF;Camussi G
2019

Abstract

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an auto-immune condition characterized by the loss of pancreatic β-cells. The curative approach for highly selected patients is the pancreas or the pancreatic islet transplantation. Nevertheless, these options are limited by a growing shortage of donor organs and by the requirement of immunosuppression.Xenotransplantation of porcine islets has been extensively investigated. Nevertheless, the strong xenoimmunity and the risk of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses, have limited their application in clinic. Generation of β-like cells from stem cells is one of the most promising strategies in regenerative medicine. Embryonic, and more recently, adult stem cells are currently the most promising cell sources exploited to generate functional β-cells in vitro. A number of studies demonstrated that stem cells could generate functional pancreatic organoids (POs), able to restore normoglycemia when implanted in different preclinical diabetic models. Nevertheless, a gradual loss of function and cell dead are commonly detected when POs are transplanted in immunocompetent animals. So far, the main issue to be solved is the post-transplanted islet loss, due to the host immune attack. To avoid this hurdle, nanotechnology has provided a number of polymers currently under investigation for islet micro and macro-encapsulation. These new approaches, besides conferring PO immune protection, are able to supply oxygen and nutrients and to preserve PO morphology and long-term viability.Herein, we summarize the current knowledge on bioengineered POs and the stem cell differentiation platforms. We also discuss the in vitro strategies used to generate functional POs, and the protocols currently used to confer immune-protection against the host immune attack (micro- and macro-encapsulation). In addition, the most relevant ongoing clinical trials, and the most relevant hurdles met to move towards clinical application are revised.
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Navarro-Tableros V, Gomez Y, Brizzi MF, Camussi G
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1700341
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