Purpose - Investigations on the lithobiontic colonization of the stone cultural heritage in (semi-)arid regions are needed to address conservation strategies. In this work, lithobiontic communities were examined on the carbonate rock surfaces of the heritage site of the Tomb of Lazarus.We aimed to evaluate their distribution and interaction with the lithic substrate, together with the efficacy of biocidal treatments for their control. Methods - Diversity and abundance of lithobionts were surveyed on the Jerusalem stone blocks of three architectural elements. Observations at the lichen-rock interface were carried out by reflected light and scanning electron microscopy. The efficacy against lichens of the widely used biocide benzalkonium chloride (BZC) was compared for different concentrations and application methods, and evaluated by epifluorescence microscopy. Results - Chlorolichens were the dominant component of lithobiontic communities, more thoroughly adapted to the semi-arid conditions of the site than mosses and black biofilms of cyanobacteria and dematiaceous fungi. A different structural organization, in terms of thallus thickness and depth of the hyphal penetration component, characterized epilithic and endolithic lichen species, responsible for different deteriogenic activities. Biocidal assays showed that even the methodologies that are usually effective in temperate conditions (as the application of BZC 1.5% by poultice) may not completely devitalize lichens adapted to the stress conditions of semi-arid climates, unless a pervasive biocide diffusion through metabolically active thalli is carefully guaranteed. Conclusion - Lithobionts act as biodeteriogens on the semi-arid surfaces of the investigated heritage site. Their removal is thus recommendable, but it needs to be adequately supported with a careful calibration of devitalization strategies.

Lichens and other lithobionts on the carbonate rock surfaces of the heritage site of the tomb of Lazarus (Palestinian territories): diversity, biodeterioration, and control issues in a semi-arid environment

Matteucci E.;Scarcella A. V.;Croveri P.;Marengo A.;Borghi A.;Favero-Longo S. E.
2019

Abstract

Purpose - Investigations on the lithobiontic colonization of the stone cultural heritage in (semi-)arid regions are needed to address conservation strategies. In this work, lithobiontic communities were examined on the carbonate rock surfaces of the heritage site of the Tomb of Lazarus.We aimed to evaluate their distribution and interaction with the lithic substrate, together with the efficacy of biocidal treatments for their control. Methods - Diversity and abundance of lithobionts were surveyed on the Jerusalem stone blocks of three architectural elements. Observations at the lichen-rock interface were carried out by reflected light and scanning electron microscopy. The efficacy against lichens of the widely used biocide benzalkonium chloride (BZC) was compared for different concentrations and application methods, and evaluated by epifluorescence microscopy. Results - Chlorolichens were the dominant component of lithobiontic communities, more thoroughly adapted to the semi-arid conditions of the site than mosses and black biofilms of cyanobacteria and dematiaceous fungi. A different structural organization, in terms of thallus thickness and depth of the hyphal penetration component, characterized epilithic and endolithic lichen species, responsible for different deteriogenic activities. Biocidal assays showed that even the methodologies that are usually effective in temperate conditions (as the application of BZC 1.5% by poultice) may not completely devitalize lichens adapted to the stress conditions of semi-arid climates, unless a pervasive biocide diffusion through metabolically active thalli is carefully guaranteed. Conclusion - Lithobionts act as biodeteriogens on the semi-arid surfaces of the investigated heritage site. Their removal is thus recommendable, but it needs to be adequately supported with a careful calibration of devitalization strategies.
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1046
http://springerlink.com/content/121707/
Biocide; Biodiversity; Biofilm; Didactic activities; Lichens; Stone conservation
Matteucci E.; Scarcella A.V.; Croveri P.; Marengo A.; Borghi A.; Benelli C.; Hamdan O.; Favero-Longo S.E.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1704348
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