Headache disorders are the third among the worldwide causes of disability, measured in years of life lost to disability. Given the pharmacies' importance in general in headache patient and, in particular in migraine patient management, various studies have been carried out in recent years dealing with this issue. Indeed, in 2014, our research group first analysed publications on a number of studies conducted worldwide. As five years have passed since our first analysis of the literature and having carried out a number of specific studies in Italy since 2014, we wish to analyse once again the studies carried out globally on this topic to evaluate how the situation has evolved in the meantime. The key words used for the bibliographic search were "community pharmacy" and "headache"; we considered articles published between 2014 and 2018. The selected studies regarded Sweden USA, Belgium, Ireland, Jordan and Ethiopia. From the analysis of the international research papers, it is evident that, despite the time that has passed since the previous analyses and the general agreement that pharmacists find themselves in an ideal position to offer adequate levels of counselling to headache patients, the knowledge of pharmacists is not yet sufficient. Clearly, there is a strong need to develop training programmes specifically focused on this subject. Regarding Italy, a national study, commenced in 2016, was designed as a cross-sectional survey employing face-to-face interviews between pharmacist and patient using a questionnaire drawn up by experts in compliance with best practice from scientific literature. Six hundred ten pharmacists followed a specific training course; 4425 questionnaires were correctly completed. The use of pharmacies as epidemiological sentinels, given their capillarity and daily contact with the local population in Italy, enabled us to obtain an epidemiological snapshot closer to the real-life situation compared to specialist headache centres. Over the course of this study, data on headaches were gathered in Italian pharmacies with the highest levels of numerosity in the world.
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