In the last few years, the increasing awareness of the complex interaction between monoclonal component and renal damage has determined not only a new classification of the associated disorders, called Monoclonal Gammopathy of Renal Significance (MGRS), but has also contributed to emphasize the importance of an early diagnosis of the renal involvement, which is often hard to detect but can evolve towards terminal uraemia; it has also pointed at the need to treat these disorders with aggressive regimens, even if they are not strictly neoplastic. The case described here presented urinary abnormalities and renal failure secondary to a membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), with intensively positive immunofluorescence (IF) for monoclonal k light chain and C3, and in the absence of a neoplastic lympho-proliferative disorder documented on bone marrow biopsy. After the final diagnosis of MGRS, the patient was treated with several cycles of a therapy including dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide and bortezomib, showing a good functional and clinical response.
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