The effect of long-term immobilization on the motor system has been described during motor preparation, imagination or execution, when the movement has to be performed. But, what happens when the movement has to be suppressed? Does long-term limb immobilization modulate physiological responses underlying motor inhibition? Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in healthy participants performing a Go/Nogo task, either with both hands free to respond (T1/T4: before/after the immobilization) or when left-hand movements were prevented by a cast (T2: as soon as the cast was positioned; T3: after one week of immobilization). In the right (control) side, N140, N2, and P3 components showed the expected greater amplitude in Nogo than in Go trials, irrespective of the timepoint. On the contrary, in the left (manipulated) side, each component of the ERP responses to Nogo trials showed specific differences across timepoints, suggesting that the inhibition-related EEG activity is significantly reduced by the presence of the cast and the duration of the immobilization. Furthermore, inhibition-related theta band activity to Nogo stimuli decreased at post-immobilization blocked session (T3-blocked). Altogether these findings can be interpreted as a consequence of the plastic changes induced by the immobilization, as also demonstrated by the cast-related corticospinal excitability modulation (investigated by using TMS) and by the decreased beta band in response to Go and Nogo trials. Thus, only if we are free to move, then inhibitory responses are fully implemented. After one week of immobilization, the amount of inhibition necessary to block the movement is lower and, consequently, inhibitory-related responses are reduced.

Long-term limb immobilization modulates inhibition-related electrophysiological brain activity

Bruno V.;Ronga I.;Fossataro C.;Galigani M.;Sacco K.;Garbarini F.
2020

Abstract

The effect of long-term immobilization on the motor system has been described during motor preparation, imagination or execution, when the movement has to be performed. But, what happens when the movement has to be suppressed? Does long-term limb immobilization modulate physiological responses underlying motor inhibition? Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in healthy participants performing a Go/Nogo task, either with both hands free to respond (T1/T4: before/after the immobilization) or when left-hand movements were prevented by a cast (T2: as soon as the cast was positioned; T3: after one week of immobilization). In the right (control) side, N140, N2, and P3 components showed the expected greater amplitude in Nogo than in Go trials, irrespective of the timepoint. On the contrary, in the left (manipulated) side, each component of the ERP responses to Nogo trials showed specific differences across timepoints, suggesting that the inhibition-related EEG activity is significantly reduced by the presence of the cast and the duration of the immobilization. Furthermore, inhibition-related theta band activity to Nogo stimuli decreased at post-immobilization blocked session (T3-blocked). Altogether these findings can be interpreted as a consequence of the plastic changes induced by the immobilization, as also demonstrated by the cast-related corticospinal excitability modulation (investigated by using TMS) and by the decreased beta band in response to Go and Nogo trials. Thus, only if we are free to move, then inhibitory responses are fully implemented. After one week of immobilization, the amount of inhibition necessary to block the movement is lower and, consequently, inhibitory-related responses are reduced.
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Beta band; EEG; Long-lasting immobilization; Motor inhibition related N2–P3 complex; Single-pulse TMS; Theta band
Bruno V.; Ronga I.; Fossataro C.; Galigani M.; Sacco K.; Garbarini F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1743407
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