This study aims to evaluate the bioeffects of glutathione-responsive β-cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (GSH-NSs) on two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. The bioeffects of two types of GSH-NS formulations, with low (GSH-NS B) and high (GSH-NS D) disulfide-bond content, were evaluated on 2D colorectal (HCT116 and HT-29) and prostatic (DU-145 and PC3) cancer cell cultures. In particular, the cellular uptake of GSH-NS was evaluated, as their effects on cell growth, mitochondrial activity, membrane integrity, cell cycle distribution, mRNA expression, and reactive oxygen species production. The effect of GSH-NSs on cell growth was also evaluated on multicellular spheroids (MCS) and a comparison of the GSH-NS cell growth inhibitory activity, in terms of inhibition concentration (IC)50 values, was performed between 2D and 3D cell cultures. A significant decrease in 2D cell growth was observed at high GSH-NS concentrations, with the formulation with a low disulfide-bond content, GSH-NS B, being more cytotoxic than the formulation with a high disulfide-bond content, GSH-NS D. The cell growth decrease induced by GSH-NS was owing to G1 cell cycle arrest. Moreover, a significant down-regulation of mRNA expression of the cyclin genes CDK1, CDK2, and CDK4 and up-regulation of mRNA expression of the cyclin inhibitor genes CDKN1A and CDKN2A were observed. On the other hand, a significant decrease in MCS growth was also observed at high GSH-NS concentrations, but not influenced by the nanosponge disulfide-bond content, with the MCS IC50 values being significantly higher than those obtained on 2D cell cultures. GSH-NSs are suitable nanocarries as they provoke limited cellular effects, as cell cycle arrest only occurred at concentrations significantly higher than those used for drug delivery.

Biological Effect Evaluation of Glutathione-Responsive Cyclodextrin-Based Nanosponges: 2D and 3D Studies

Argenziano M.;Foglietta F.;Canaparo R.;Spagnolo R.;Della Pepa C.;Caldera F.;Trotta F.;Serpe L.;Cavalli R.
2020

Abstract

This study aims to evaluate the bioeffects of glutathione-responsive β-cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (GSH-NSs) on two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. The bioeffects of two types of GSH-NS formulations, with low (GSH-NS B) and high (GSH-NS D) disulfide-bond content, were evaluated on 2D colorectal (HCT116 and HT-29) and prostatic (DU-145 and PC3) cancer cell cultures. In particular, the cellular uptake of GSH-NS was evaluated, as their effects on cell growth, mitochondrial activity, membrane integrity, cell cycle distribution, mRNA expression, and reactive oxygen species production. The effect of GSH-NSs on cell growth was also evaluated on multicellular spheroids (MCS) and a comparison of the GSH-NS cell growth inhibitory activity, in terms of inhibition concentration (IC)50 values, was performed between 2D and 3D cell cultures. A significant decrease in 2D cell growth was observed at high GSH-NS concentrations, with the formulation with a low disulfide-bond content, GSH-NS B, being more cytotoxic than the formulation with a high disulfide-bond content, GSH-NS D. The cell growth decrease induced by GSH-NS was owing to G1 cell cycle arrest. Moreover, a significant down-regulation of mRNA expression of the cyclin genes CDK1, CDK2, and CDK4 and up-regulation of mRNA expression of the cyclin inhibitor genes CDKN1A and CDKN2A were observed. On the other hand, a significant decrease in MCS growth was also observed at high GSH-NS concentrations, but not influenced by the nanosponge disulfide-bond content, with the MCS IC50 values being significantly higher than those obtained on 2D cell cultures. GSH-NSs are suitable nanocarries as they provoke limited cellular effects, as cell cycle arrest only occurred at concentrations significantly higher than those used for drug delivery.
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cancer; glutathione; multicellular spheroids; nanosponges; β-cyclodextrin
Argenziano M.; Foglietta F.; Canaparo R.; Spagnolo R.; Della Pepa C.; Caldera F.; Trotta F.; Serpe L.; Cavalli R.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1743553
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