Purpose: Hyponatremia and hypokalemia are common among elderly and have been associated with osteoporosis, we evaluate the role of these electrolytes as risk for fragility fractures. Methods: This study is divided in two parts: one retrospective and one prospective. We retrospectively collected data on urgently admitted patients for femoral fragility fractures (Fx) or for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and patients admitted for elective hip/knee replacement surgery for osteoarthrosis (OA). Age, sex, serum sodium, potassium, creatinine, and comorbidities were recorded. We enrolled prospectively in-patients from our unit: age, sex, comorbidities, drugs, and fragility fractures were recorded. Blood electrolytes were measured. Cognitive function, nutrition, muscular strength, and balance were evaluated by standard tests. The mortality rate was recorded with a follow-up after hospital discharge. Results: The retrospective study included 2166 subjects: 702 Fx and 1464 controls (907 AMI, 557 OA): the prevalence of hyponatremia was similar in Fx and AMI, whereas it was higher in Fx with respect to OA (p < 0.001) as well as hypokalemia (p < 0.001). Sodium decrease was associated with higher fracture risk. Among the 284 subjects included in the prospective study, 50 patients were hyponatremic, more likely malnourished, and presented a higher prevalence of fragility fractures (p = 0.008). They had a higher mortality after hospital discharge (HR = 1.80, p = 0.005), however, this association disappears after correction for confounding variables. Conclusions: We suggest that hyponatremia and hypokalemia have to be considered as a marker of poor health more than an independent fracture risk.

Hyponatremia, Hypokalemia, and Fragility Fractures in Old Patients: More than an Association?

Moirano G.;Richiardi L.;Spertino E.;Vezza C.;Isaia G. C.;D'Amelio P.
2020

Abstract

Purpose: Hyponatremia and hypokalemia are common among elderly and have been associated with osteoporosis, we evaluate the role of these electrolytes as risk for fragility fractures. Methods: This study is divided in two parts: one retrospective and one prospective. We retrospectively collected data on urgently admitted patients for femoral fragility fractures (Fx) or for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and patients admitted for elective hip/knee replacement surgery for osteoarthrosis (OA). Age, sex, serum sodium, potassium, creatinine, and comorbidities were recorded. We enrolled prospectively in-patients from our unit: age, sex, comorbidities, drugs, and fragility fractures were recorded. Blood electrolytes were measured. Cognitive function, nutrition, muscular strength, and balance were evaluated by standard tests. The mortality rate was recorded with a follow-up after hospital discharge. Results: The retrospective study included 2166 subjects: 702 Fx and 1464 controls (907 AMI, 557 OA): the prevalence of hyponatremia was similar in Fx and AMI, whereas it was higher in Fx with respect to OA (p < 0.001) as well as hypokalemia (p < 0.001). Sodium decrease was associated with higher fracture risk. Among the 284 subjects included in the prospective study, 50 patients were hyponatremic, more likely malnourished, and presented a higher prevalence of fragility fractures (p = 0.008). They had a higher mortality after hospital discharge (HR = 1.80, p = 0.005), however, this association disappears after correction for confounding variables. Conclusions: We suggest that hyponatremia and hypokalemia have to be considered as a marker of poor health more than an independent fracture risk.
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Fracture; Hyponatremia; Osteoporosis; Potassium; Sodium
Schiara L.A.M.; Moirano G.; Grosso E.; Richiardi L.; Tibaldi M.; Spertino E.; Vezza C.; Isaia G.C.; Massaia M.; D'Amelio P.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1755365
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