Oral exposure to titanium dioxide (TiO2) is common since it is widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. Concern on the safety of this substance has been recently raised, due to the presence of an ultrafine fraction in food-grade TiO2. Discrepancy exists among data reported in in vitro and in vivo studies on intestinal acute/chronic toxicity of TiO2. This might be due to the different biological identity of TiO2 in traditional in vitro test by respect in vivo conditions. Methods: One food-grade TiO2 and two nanometric TiO2 samples were treated with a simulated human digestive dystem (SHDS) in order to investigate the bio-transformation occurring to the particles once ingested in term of size distribution (Dynamic Light Scattering—DLS-, Flow Particle Imaging, Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation-AF4-) and surface modification (Electrophoretic Light Scattering—ELS-, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy—EPR-). The effect of SHDS on the cyto-, genotoxicity and potential to induce oxidative stress towards human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells was also assessed. Results: Aggregation as a consequence of the high ionic strength of the gastric and intestinal simulated fluids was observed, together with the formation of a partially irreversible bio-corona containing phosphate ions and proteins. Such bio-corona led to a partial masking of the TiO2 particles surface and reactivity. Pristine and treated TiO2 nanoparticles showed comparable acute toxicity and genotoxicity toward HCT116 cells, whereas a small decrease of the induction of oxidative stress after treatment was observed. Conclusions: Overall the results underline the importance of SHDS as a tool to improve the predictive power of in vitro tests towards intestinal nanomaterial toxicity.

Biotransformation of Food-Grade and Nanometric TiO2 in the Oral–Gastro–Intestinal Tract: Driving Forces and Effect on the Toxicity toward Intestinal Epithelial Cells

Arianna Marucco
First
;
Enrico Bergamaschi;Ivana Fenoglio
Last
2020-01-01

Abstract

Oral exposure to titanium dioxide (TiO2) is common since it is widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. Concern on the safety of this substance has been recently raised, due to the presence of an ultrafine fraction in food-grade TiO2. Discrepancy exists among data reported in in vitro and in vivo studies on intestinal acute/chronic toxicity of TiO2. This might be due to the different biological identity of TiO2 in traditional in vitro test by respect in vivo conditions. Methods: One food-grade TiO2 and two nanometric TiO2 samples were treated with a simulated human digestive dystem (SHDS) in order to investigate the bio-transformation occurring to the particles once ingested in term of size distribution (Dynamic Light Scattering—DLS-, Flow Particle Imaging, Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation-AF4-) and surface modification (Electrophoretic Light Scattering—ELS-, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy—EPR-). The effect of SHDS on the cyto-, genotoxicity and potential to induce oxidative stress towards human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells was also assessed. Results: Aggregation as a consequence of the high ionic strength of the gastric and intestinal simulated fluids was observed, together with the formation of a partially irreversible bio-corona containing phosphate ions and proteins. Such bio-corona led to a partial masking of the TiO2 particles surface and reactivity. Pristine and treated TiO2 nanoparticles showed comparable acute toxicity and genotoxicity toward HCT116 cells, whereas a small decrease of the induction of oxidative stress after treatment was observed. Conclusions: Overall the results underline the importance of SHDS as a tool to improve the predictive power of in vitro tests towards intestinal nanomaterial toxicity.
10
1
20
Arianna Marucco, Marion Prono , David Beal , Enrica Alasonati , Paola Fisicaro , Enrico Bergamaschi , Marie Carriere , Ivana Fenoglio
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
nanomaterials_Marucco_2020.pdf

Accesso aperto

Descrizione: Articolo principale
Tipo di file: PDF EDITORIALE
Dimensione 4.11 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
4.11 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1762748
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 9
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 8
social impact