Background: To explore the relationship between adult Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), antistreptococcal titers, ABGA, and recurrent infections during early childhood. Method: Childhood history of recurrent infections and a blood sample were collected in a sample of DSM-IV adult outpatients with ADHD. The anti-streptolysin O (ASO), anti-deoxyribonuclease B (anti-DNase B), and anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) titers were determined in patient plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Titers positivity was evaluated following manufacturer’s specifications. Absolute titers were also collected as continuous variables. Results: Fourteen out of 22 (63.6%) have had recurrent infections in childhood (i.e., seven, 31.8%, have had tonsillitis or adenoiditis and seven, 31.8%, have had any other infections). Eighteen patients (81.9%) were positive for anti-DNase B, five (22.7%) for ASO, and 4 (18.2%) were positive for both of them. Five participants (22.7%) were ABGA positive, whereas only two (9.1%) were positive for all three antibodies. Conclusions: patients with ADHD might be more prone to infections during childhood and subclinical streptococcal infections during adulthood. Moreover, they seem to have an increased risk for basal ganglia autoimmunity in adulthood. Both infections and the ensuing acquired autoimmunity could influence the neurodevelopmental process, by contributing, at least in part, to the ADHD pathogenesis.

Early childhood infections, antistreptococcal and basal ganglia antibodies in adult ADHD: a preliminary study

Oliva F.;di Girolamo G.;Malandrone F.;Iaia N.;Biasi F.;Maina G.
2020

Abstract

Background: To explore the relationship between adult Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), antistreptococcal titers, ABGA, and recurrent infections during early childhood. Method: Childhood history of recurrent infections and a blood sample were collected in a sample of DSM-IV adult outpatients with ADHD. The anti-streptolysin O (ASO), anti-deoxyribonuclease B (anti-DNase B), and anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) titers were determined in patient plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Titers positivity was evaluated following manufacturer’s specifications. Absolute titers were also collected as continuous variables. Results: Fourteen out of 22 (63.6%) have had recurrent infections in childhood (i.e., seven, 31.8%, have had tonsillitis or adenoiditis and seven, 31.8%, have had any other infections). Eighteen patients (81.9%) were positive for anti-DNase B, five (22.7%) for ASO, and 4 (18.2%) were positive for both of them. Five participants (22.7%) were ABGA positive, whereas only two (9.1%) were positive for all three antibodies. Conclusions: patients with ADHD might be more prone to infections during childhood and subclinical streptococcal infections during adulthood. Moreover, they seem to have an increased risk for basal ganglia autoimmunity in adulthood. Both infections and the ensuing acquired autoimmunity could influence the neurodevelopmental process, by contributing, at least in part, to the ADHD pathogenesis.
BMC PSYCHIATRY
20
1
542
548
ABGA; ADHD; Adult; Anti-deoxyribonuclease B; Anti-streptolysin O; Basal ganglia; Group a streptococcus
Oliva F.; di Girolamo G.; Malandrone F.; Iaia N.; Biasi F.; Maina G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1764102
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