β-lactamases (BLs) represent the most frequent cause of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the continuous efforts in the development of BL inhibitors (BLIs), new BLs able to hydrolyze the last developed antibiotics rapidly emerge. Moreover, the insurgence rate of effective mutations is far higher than the release of BLIs able to counteract them. This results in a shortage of antibiotics that is menacing the effective treating of infectious diseases. The situation is made even worse by the co-expression in bacteria of BLs with different mechanisms and hydrolysis spectra, and by the lack of inhibitors able to hit them all. Differently from other targets, BL flexibility has not been deeply exploited for drug design, possibly because of the small protein size, for their apparent rigidity and their high fold conservation. In this mini-review, we discuss the evidence for BL binding site dynamics being crucial for catalytic efficiency, mutation effect, and for the design of new inhibitors. Then, we report on identified allosteric sites in BLs and on possible allosteric inhibitors, as a strategy to overcome the frequent occurrence of mutations in BLs and the difficulty of competing efficaciously with substrates. Nevertheless, allosteric inhibitors could work synergistically with traditional inhibitors, increasing the chances of restoring bacterial susceptibility towards available antibiotics.

Can we exploit β-lactamases intrinsic dynamics for designing more effective inhibitors?

Gianquinto E.
First
;
D'arrigo G.;Lazzarato L.;Spyrakis F.
Last
2020

Abstract

β-lactamases (BLs) represent the most frequent cause of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the continuous efforts in the development of BL inhibitors (BLIs), new BLs able to hydrolyze the last developed antibiotics rapidly emerge. Moreover, the insurgence rate of effective mutations is far higher than the release of BLIs able to counteract them. This results in a shortage of antibiotics that is menacing the effective treating of infectious diseases. The situation is made even worse by the co-expression in bacteria of BLs with different mechanisms and hydrolysis spectra, and by the lack of inhibitors able to hit them all. Differently from other targets, BL flexibility has not been deeply exploited for drug design, possibly because of the small protein size, for their apparent rigidity and their high fold conservation. In this mini-review, we discuss the evidence for BL binding site dynamics being crucial for catalytic efficiency, mutation effect, and for the design of new inhibitors. Then, we report on identified allosteric sites in BLs and on possible allosteric inhibitors, as a strategy to overcome the frequent occurrence of mutations in BLs and the difficulty of competing efficaciously with substrates. Nevertheless, allosteric inhibitors could work synergistically with traditional inhibitors, increasing the chances of restoring bacterial susceptibility towards available antibiotics.
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Allosteric enzyme inhibitors; Antimicrobial resistance; Carbapenemases; Drug design; Intrinsic dynamics; KPC-2; Metallo β-lactamases; Protein flexibility; β-lactamases
Gianquinto E.; Tondi D.; D'arrigo G.; Lazzarato L.; Spyrakis F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1765333
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