Atherosclerosis is a degenerative disease characterized by lesions that develop in the wall of large- and medium-sized arteries due to the accumulation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) in the intima. A growing bulk of evidence suggests that cholesterol oxidation products, known as oxysterols, and the aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), the major pro-atherogenic components of oxidized LDLs, signif- icantly contribute to atherosclerotic plaque progression and destabilization, with eventual plaque rupture. The involvement of certain members of the protein convertase subtilisin/kexin proteases (PCSKs) in atherosclerosis has been recently hypothesized. Among them, PCSK6 has been associated with plaque instability, mainly thanks to its ability to stimulate the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and to enhance inflammation. In U937 promon- ocytic cells and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, an oxysterol mixture and HNE were able to up- regulate the level and activity of PCSK6, resulting in MMP-9 activation as demonstrated by PCSK6 silencing. Inflammation, enhanced by these lipid oxidation products, plays a key role in the up-regulation of PCSK6 activity as demonstrated by cell pretreatment with NS-398, with epigallocatechin gallate or with acetylsalicylic acid, all with anti-inflammatory effects. For the first time, we demonstrated that both oxysterols and HNE, which substantially accumulate in the atherosclerotic plaque, up-regulate the activity of PCSK6. Of note, we also suggest a potential asso- ciation between PCSK6 activity and MMP-9 activation, pointing out that PCSK6 could contribute to atherosclerotic plaque development.

Up-regulation of PCSK6 by lipid oxidation products: A possible role in atherosclerosis

Gabriella Testa
Co-first
;
Erica Staurenghi
Co-first
;
Serena Giannelli;Barbara Sottero;Giuseppe Poli;Paola Gamba;Gabriella Leonarduzzi
Last
2021

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a degenerative disease characterized by lesions that develop in the wall of large- and medium-sized arteries due to the accumulation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) in the intima. A growing bulk of evidence suggests that cholesterol oxidation products, known as oxysterols, and the aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), the major pro-atherogenic components of oxidized LDLs, signif- icantly contribute to atherosclerotic plaque progression and destabilization, with eventual plaque rupture. The involvement of certain members of the protein convertase subtilisin/kexin proteases (PCSKs) in atherosclerosis has been recently hypothesized. Among them, PCSK6 has been associated with plaque instability, mainly thanks to its ability to stimulate the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and to enhance inflammation. In U937 promon- ocytic cells and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, an oxysterol mixture and HNE were able to up- regulate the level and activity of PCSK6, resulting in MMP-9 activation as demonstrated by PCSK6 silencing. Inflammation, enhanced by these lipid oxidation products, plays a key role in the up-regulation of PCSK6 activity as demonstrated by cell pretreatment with NS-398, with epigallocatechin gallate or with acetylsalicylic acid, all with anti-inflammatory effects. For the first time, we demonstrated that both oxysterols and HNE, which substantially accumulate in the atherosclerotic plaque, up-regulate the activity of PCSK6. Of note, we also suggest a potential asso- ciation between PCSK6 activity and MMP-9 activation, pointing out that PCSK6 could contribute to atherosclerotic plaque development.
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Oxysterols, 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal, PCSK6, MMP-9, Inflammation, Atherosclerosis
Gabriella Testa, Erica Staurenghi, Serena Giannelli, Barbara Sottero, Simona Gargiulo, Giuseppe Poli, Paola Gamba, Gabriella Leonarduzzi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1766940
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