Soil fungi strongly influence ecosystem structure and functioning, playing a key role in many ecological services as decomposers, plant mutualists and pathogens. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) establish mutualistic symbiotic associations with plant roots and act as biofertilizers by enhancing plant nutrients and water uptake. Information about the AMF association with Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and their impact on crop performances and spice quality has been increasing in recent years. Instead, there is still little data on the biodiversity of soil microbial communities associated with this crop in the Alpine environments. The aims of this study were to investigate the fungal communities of two Alpine experimental sites cultivated with saffron, and to rank the relative impact of two AMF inocula, applied to soil as single species (R = Rhizophagus intraradices, C.Walker & A. Schüßler) or a mixture of two species (M = R. intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae, C. Walker & A. Schüßler), on the resident fungal communities which might be influenced in their diversity and composition. We used Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding on nuclear ribosomal ITS2 region to characterize the fungal communities associated to Crocus sativus cultivation in two fields, located in the municipalities of Saint Christophe (SC) and Morgex (MG), (Aosta Valley, Italy), treated or not with AMF inocula and sampled for two consecutive years (Y1; Y2). Data analyses consistently indicated that Basidiomycota were particularly abundant in both sites and sampling years (Y1 and Y2). Significant differences in the distribution of fungal taxa assemblages at phylum and class levels between the two sites were also found. The main compositional differences consisted in significant abundance changes of OTUs belonging to Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota), Agaricomycetes and Tremellomycetes (Basidiomycota), Mortierellomycetes and Mucoromycetes. Further differences concerned OTUs, of other classes, significantly represented only in the first or second year of sampling. Concerning Glomeromycota, the most represented genus was Claroideoglomus always detected in both sites and years. Other AMF genera such as Funneliformis, Septoglomus and Microdominikia, were retrieved only in MG site. Results highlighted that neither sites nor inoculation significantly impacted Alpine saffron-field fungal communities; instead, the year of sampling had the most appreciable influence on the resident communities.

Metabarcoding of Soil Fungal Communities Associated with Alpine Field-Grown Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Inoculated with AM Fungi.

Samuele Voyron;Matteo Caser;Alberto Orgiazzi;Sonia Demasi;Valentina Scariot;Erica Lumini
2021

Abstract

Soil fungi strongly influence ecosystem structure and functioning, playing a key role in many ecological services as decomposers, plant mutualists and pathogens. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) establish mutualistic symbiotic associations with plant roots and act as biofertilizers by enhancing plant nutrients and water uptake. Information about the AMF association with Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and their impact on crop performances and spice quality has been increasing in recent years. Instead, there is still little data on the biodiversity of soil microbial communities associated with this crop in the Alpine environments. The aims of this study were to investigate the fungal communities of two Alpine experimental sites cultivated with saffron, and to rank the relative impact of two AMF inocula, applied to soil as single species (R = Rhizophagus intraradices, C.Walker & A. Schüßler) or a mixture of two species (M = R. intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae, C. Walker & A. Schüßler), on the resident fungal communities which might be influenced in their diversity and composition. We used Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding on nuclear ribosomal ITS2 region to characterize the fungal communities associated to Crocus sativus cultivation in two fields, located in the municipalities of Saint Christophe (SC) and Morgex (MG), (Aosta Valley, Italy), treated or not with AMF inocula and sampled for two consecutive years (Y1; Y2). Data analyses consistently indicated that Basidiomycota were particularly abundant in both sites and sampling years (Y1 and Y2). Significant differences in the distribution of fungal taxa assemblages at phylum and class levels between the two sites were also found. The main compositional differences consisted in significant abundance changes of OTUs belonging to Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota), Agaricomycetes and Tremellomycetes (Basidiomycota), Mortierellomycetes and Mucoromycetes. Further differences concerned OTUs, of other classes, significantly represented only in the first or second year of sampling. Concerning Glomeromycota, the most represented genus was Claroideoglomus always detected in both sites and years. Other AMF genera such as Funneliformis, Septoglomus and Microdominikia, were retrieved only in MG site. Results highlighted that neither sites nor inoculation significantly impacted Alpine saffron-field fungal communities; instead, the year of sampling had the most appreciable influence on the resident communities.
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soil fungal metabarcoding, saffron cultivation, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF inocula, alpine field environments
Íris Marisa Maxaieie Victorino, Samuele Voyron, Matteo Caser, Alberto Orgiazzi, Sonia Demasi, Andrea Berruti, Valentina Scariot, Valeria Bianciotto, Erica Lumini
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1767303
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