Mitotane is widely used for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer (ACC), although the drug-related toxicity complicates its use. The aim of this study is to assess comprehensively the different endocrine and metabolic unwanted effects of the drug, and to provide data on the supportive therapies. We retrospectively analyzed 74 ACC patients adjuvantly treated with mitotane for ≥12 months. During the treatment period (40 months, 12–195), 32.4% of patients needed replacement therapy for mineralocorticoid deficit, 36.2% for hypothyroidism and 34.3% for male hypogonadism. In fertile women, hypogonadism was uncommon, while 65.4% of women developed ovarian cysts. Although no significant change in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was observed, statins were started in 50% of patients for a significant increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides. Dyslipidemia occurred early, after a median time of 6 months from mitotane start. Conversely, testosterone replacement was usually started after >2 years. In many cases, ranging from 29.4% to 50% according to the side effect, toxicity occurred well before the achievement of the target mitotane concentrations. Supportive therapies were able to revert the biochemical alterations induced by mitotane, although higher doses were needed for a likely pharmacokinetic interaction of exogenous steroids and statins with mitotane. In conclusion, adjuvant mitotane therapy is associated with a spectrum of unwanted effects encompassing the function of different endocrine glands and requires a careful clinical and biochemical assessment associated with the therapeutic drug monitoring.

Unwanted hormonal and metabolic effects of postoperative adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical cancer

Basile V.;Puglisi S.;Calabrese A.;Pia A.;Perotti P.;Berruti A.;Reimondo G.;Terzolo M.
2020

Abstract

Mitotane is widely used for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer (ACC), although the drug-related toxicity complicates its use. The aim of this study is to assess comprehensively the different endocrine and metabolic unwanted effects of the drug, and to provide data on the supportive therapies. We retrospectively analyzed 74 ACC patients adjuvantly treated with mitotane for ≥12 months. During the treatment period (40 months, 12–195), 32.4% of patients needed replacement therapy for mineralocorticoid deficit, 36.2% for hypothyroidism and 34.3% for male hypogonadism. In fertile women, hypogonadism was uncommon, while 65.4% of women developed ovarian cysts. Although no significant change in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was observed, statins were started in 50% of patients for a significant increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides. Dyslipidemia occurred early, after a median time of 6 months from mitotane start. Conversely, testosterone replacement was usually started after >2 years. In many cases, ranging from 29.4% to 50% according to the side effect, toxicity occurred well before the achievement of the target mitotane concentrations. Supportive therapies were able to revert the biochemical alterations induced by mitotane, although higher doses were needed for a likely pharmacokinetic interaction of exogenous steroids and statins with mitotane. In conclusion, adjuvant mitotane therapy is associated with a spectrum of unwanted effects encompassing the function of different endocrine glands and requires a careful clinical and biochemical assessment associated with the therapeutic drug monitoring.
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565701/pdf/cancers-12-02615.pdf
Adrenal insufficiency; Adrenocortical carcinoma; Endocrine effects; Hypercholesterolemia; Hypogonadism; Hypothyroidism; Mitotane; Ovarian cyst; Statin; Toxicity
Basile V.; Puglisi S.; Calabrese A.; Pia A.; Perotti P.; Berruti A.; Reimondo G.; Terzolo M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1768904
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