Stressful environmental conditions lead to the production of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplasts, due to limited photosynthesis and enhanced excitation pressure on the photosystems. Among these reactive species, singlet oxygen (1O2), which is generated at the level of the PSII reaction center, is very reactive, readily oxidizing macromolecules in its immediate surroundings, and it has been identified as the principal cause of photooxidative damage in plant leaves. The two β-carotene molecules present in the PSII reaction center are prime targets of 1O2 oxidation, leading to the formation of various oxidized derivatives. Plants have evolved sensing mechanisms for those PSII-generated metabolites, which regulate gene expression, putting in place defense mechanisms and alleviating the effects of PSII-damaging conditions. A new picture is thus emerging which places PSII as a sensor and transducer in plant stress resilience through its capacity to generate signaling metabolites under excess light energy. This review summarizes new advances in the characterization of the apocarotenoids involved in the PSII-mediated stress response and of the pathways elicited by these molecules, among which is the xenobiotic detoxification.

Sensing β-carotene oxidation in photosystem II to master plant stress tolerance

D'Alessandro S.
First
;
2019-01-01

Abstract

Stressful environmental conditions lead to the production of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplasts, due to limited photosynthesis and enhanced excitation pressure on the photosystems. Among these reactive species, singlet oxygen (1O2), which is generated at the level of the PSII reaction center, is very reactive, readily oxidizing macromolecules in its immediate surroundings, and it has been identified as the principal cause of photooxidative damage in plant leaves. The two β-carotene molecules present in the PSII reaction center are prime targets of 1O2 oxidation, leading to the formation of various oxidized derivatives. Plants have evolved sensing mechanisms for those PSII-generated metabolites, which regulate gene expression, putting in place defense mechanisms and alleviating the effects of PSII-damaging conditions. A new picture is thus emerging which places PSII as a sensor and transducer in plant stress resilience through its capacity to generate signaling metabolites under excess light energy. This review summarizes new advances in the characterization of the apocarotenoids involved in the PSII-mediated stress response and of the pathways elicited by these molecules, among which is the xenobiotic detoxification.
2019
223
4
1776
1783
apocarotenoid; photooxidative stress; photosystem; signaling; singlet oxygen; β-carotene; β-cyclocitral; Oxidation-Reduction; Photosynthesis; Photosystem II Protein Complex; beta Carotene; Adaptation, Physiological; Stress, Physiological
D'Alessandro S.; Havaux M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1784743
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