Chemoresistance represents the main obstacle to cancer treatment with both conventional and targeted therapy. Beyond specific molecular alterations, which can lead to targeted therapy, metabolic remodeling, including the control of redox status, plays an important role in cancer cell survival following therapy. Although cancer cells generally have a high basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, which makes them more susceptible than normal cells to a further increase of ROS, chemoresistant cancer cells become highly adapted to intrinsic or drug-induced oxidative stress by upregulating their antioxidant systems. The antioxidant response is principally mediated by the transcription factor Nrf2, which has been considered the master regulator of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes. Nrf2 expression is often increased in several types of chemoresistant cancer cells, and its expression is mediated by diverse mechanisms. In addition to Nrf2, other transcription factors and transcriptional coactivators can participate to maintain the high antioxidant levels in chemo and radio-resistant cancer cells. The control of expression and function of these molecules has been recently deepened to identify which of these could be used as a new therapeutic target in the treatment of tumors resistant to conventional therapy. In this review, we report the more recent advances in the study of Nrf2 regulation in chemoresistant cancers and the role played by other transcription factors and transcriptional coactivators in the control of antioxidant responses in chemoresistant cancer cells.

Control of oxidative stress in cancer chemoresistance: spotlight on Nrf2 role

Barrera G.
;
Cucci M. A.;Grattarola M.;Dianzani C.;Muzio G.;Pizzimenti S.
2021

Abstract

Chemoresistance represents the main obstacle to cancer treatment with both conventional and targeted therapy. Beyond specific molecular alterations, which can lead to targeted therapy, metabolic remodeling, including the control of redox status, plays an important role in cancer cell survival following therapy. Although cancer cells generally have a high basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, which makes them more susceptible than normal cells to a further increase of ROS, chemoresistant cancer cells become highly adapted to intrinsic or drug-induced oxidative stress by upregulating their antioxidant systems. The antioxidant response is principally mediated by the transcription factor Nrf2, which has been considered the master regulator of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes. Nrf2 expression is often increased in several types of chemoresistant cancer cells, and its expression is mediated by diverse mechanisms. In addition to Nrf2, other transcription factors and transcriptional coactivators can participate to maintain the high antioxidant levels in chemo and radio-resistant cancer cells. The control of expression and function of these molecules has been recently deepened to identify which of these could be used as a new therapeutic target in the treatment of tumors resistant to conventional therapy. In this review, we report the more recent advances in the study of Nrf2 regulation in chemoresistant cancers and the role played by other transcription factors and transcriptional coactivators in the control of antioxidant responses in chemoresistant cancer cells.
10
4
510
528
(NF-E2-related factor 2) Nrf2; Antioxidant transcription factors; Chemoresistance; Oxidative stress
Barrera G.; Cucci M.A.; Grattarola M.; Dianzani C.; Muzio G.; Pizzimenti S.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
2021 antioxidants Nrf2 review.pdf

Accesso aperto

Tipo di file: PDF EDITORIALE
Dimensione 938.22 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
938.22 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1785414
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 9
  • Scopus 10
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 12
social impact