Highly active antiretroviral treatment has led to unprecedented efficacy and tolerability in people living with HIV. This effect was also observed in the central nervous system with the nowadays uncommon observation of dementias; yet in more recent works milder forms are still reported in 20-30% of optimally treated individuals. The idea of a subclinical neuronal toxicity induced by antiretrovirals has been proposed and was somehow supported by the late-emerging effects associated with efavirenz use. In this manuscript we are reviewing all the potential mechanisms by which antiretroviral drugs have been associated with in vitro, ex vivo, or in vivo toxicity to cells pertaining to the central nervous system (neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and endothelial cells). These include direct or indirect effects and pathological pathways such as amyloid deposition, damage to small cerebral vessels, and impairment in neurotransmission. The aim of this review is therefore to provide a detailed description of the available literature in order to guide further clinical research for improving patients' neurocognition and quality of life.

A review of the potential mechanisms of neuronal toxicity associated with antiretroviral drugs

Ilaria De Benedetto
First
;
Mattia Trunfio;Stefano Bonora;Andrea Calcagno
Last
2020-01-01

Abstract

Highly active antiretroviral treatment has led to unprecedented efficacy and tolerability in people living with HIV. This effect was also observed in the central nervous system with the nowadays uncommon observation of dementias; yet in more recent works milder forms are still reported in 20-30% of optimally treated individuals. The idea of a subclinical neuronal toxicity induced by antiretrovirals has been proposed and was somehow supported by the late-emerging effects associated with efavirenz use. In this manuscript we are reviewing all the potential mechanisms by which antiretroviral drugs have been associated with in vitro, ex vivo, or in vivo toxicity to cells pertaining to the central nervous system (neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and endothelial cells). These include direct or indirect effects and pathological pathways such as amyloid deposition, damage to small cerebral vessels, and impairment in neurotransmission. The aim of this review is therefore to provide a detailed description of the available literature in order to guide further clinical research for improving patients' neurocognition and quality of life.
2020
642
651
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13365-020-00874-9
Ilaria De Benedetto, Mattia Trunfio, Giulia Guastamacchia, Stefano Bonora, Andrea Calcagno
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1785686
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