Background and aims: The overall macronutrient composition of diet, rather than just calorie intake, may influence long-term changes of anthropometry. We investigated relationships between dietary macronutrient composition and long-term changes in weight and waist circumference in participants of the EPIC–Italy – the Italian section of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – study. Methods and results: A total of 32,119 participants provided anthropometric measures at recruitment and 12 years later (mean). Diet at recruitment was assessed using validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Weight and waist changes associated with replacing 10% of energy from one macronutrient with 10% of energy from another macronutrient were assessed by multivariable linear regression. Increased energy from total protein at the expense of any other macronutrient was significantly associated with increased weight and waist circumference. Increased starch at the expense of sugar and total protein was associated with significantly decreased weight and waist circumference; when starch replaced total fat, weight significantly decreased. Increased sugar at the expense of starch and total fat was significantly associated with increased weight and waist circumference; but increase at the expense of total protein was significantly associated with decreased weight and waist circumference. Conclusion: Our results suggest that increasing protein at the expense of fat or carbohydrates, and reducing starch by increasing other macronutrients, might be associated with increased weight and waist gain.

Macronutrient composition of the diet and long-term changes in weight and waist circumference in the EPIC–Italy cohort

Ricceri F.;Macciotta A.;
2021

Abstract

Background and aims: The overall macronutrient composition of diet, rather than just calorie intake, may influence long-term changes of anthropometry. We investigated relationships between dietary macronutrient composition and long-term changes in weight and waist circumference in participants of the EPIC–Italy – the Italian section of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – study. Methods and results: A total of 32,119 participants provided anthropometric measures at recruitment and 12 years later (mean). Diet at recruitment was assessed using validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Weight and waist changes associated with replacing 10% of energy from one macronutrient with 10% of energy from another macronutrient were assessed by multivariable linear regression. Increased energy from total protein at the expense of any other macronutrient was significantly associated with increased weight and waist circumference. Increased starch at the expense of sugar and total protein was associated with significantly decreased weight and waist circumference; when starch replaced total fat, weight significantly decreased. Increased sugar at the expense of starch and total fat was significantly associated with increased weight and waist circumference; but increase at the expense of total protein was significantly associated with decreased weight and waist circumference. Conclusion: Our results suggest that increasing protein at the expense of fat or carbohydrates, and reducing starch by increasing other macronutrients, might be associated with increased weight and waist gain.
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Macronutrient; Prospective study; Waist change; Weight change
Agnoli C.; Sieri S.; Ricceri F.; Macciotta A.; Masala G.; Bendinelli B.; Panico S.; Mattiello A.; Tumino R.; Frasca G.; Krogh V.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1785699
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