Immune checkpoint receptor signaling pathways constitute a prominent class of “immune synapse,” a cell‐to‐cell connection that represses T‐lymphocyte effector functions. As a possible evolutionary countermeasure against autoimmunity, this strategy is aimed at lowering potential injury to uninfected cells in infected tissues and at minimizing systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, tumors can make use of these strategies to escape immune recognition, and consequently, such mechanisms represent chances for immunotherapy intervention. Recent years have witnessed the advance of pharmaceutical nanotechnology, or nanomedicine, as a possible strategy to ameliorate immunotherapy technical weaknesses thanks to its intrinsic biophysical properties and multifunctional modifying capability. To improve the long‐lasting response rate of checkpoint blockade therapy, nanotechnology has been employed at first for the delivery of single checkpoint inhibitors. Further, while therapy via single immune checkpoint blockade determines resistance and a restricted period of response, strong interest has been raised to efficiently deliver immunomodulators targeting different inhibitory pathways or both inhibitory and costimulatory pathways. In this review, the partially explored promise in implementation of nanotechnology to improve the success of immune checkpoint therapy and solve the limitations of single immune checkpoint inhibitors is debated. We first present the fundamental elements of the immune checkpoint pathways and then outline recent promising results of immune checkpoint blockade therapy in combination with nanotechnology delivery systems.

Advanced nanotechnology for enhancing immune checkpoint blockade therapy

Vitale E.;Rastaldo R.;Giachino C.
2021

Abstract

Immune checkpoint receptor signaling pathways constitute a prominent class of “immune synapse,” a cell‐to‐cell connection that represses T‐lymphocyte effector functions. As a possible evolutionary countermeasure against autoimmunity, this strategy is aimed at lowering potential injury to uninfected cells in infected tissues and at minimizing systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, tumors can make use of these strategies to escape immune recognition, and consequently, such mechanisms represent chances for immunotherapy intervention. Recent years have witnessed the advance of pharmaceutical nanotechnology, or nanomedicine, as a possible strategy to ameliorate immunotherapy technical weaknesses thanks to its intrinsic biophysical properties and multifunctional modifying capability. To improve the long‐lasting response rate of checkpoint blockade therapy, nanotechnology has been employed at first for the delivery of single checkpoint inhibitors. Further, while therapy via single immune checkpoint blockade determines resistance and a restricted period of response, strong interest has been raised to efficiently deliver immunomodulators targeting different inhibitory pathways or both inhibitory and costimulatory pathways. In this review, the partially explored promise in implementation of nanotechnology to improve the success of immune checkpoint therapy and solve the limitations of single immune checkpoint inhibitors is debated. We first present the fundamental elements of the immune checkpoint pathways and then outline recent promising results of immune checkpoint blockade therapy in combination with nanotechnology delivery systems.
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Active targeting; Cancer therapy; Immune checkpoint receptor; Immunotherapy; Nanoconjugates; Nanomedicine; Nanoparticles
Cremolini C.; Vitale E.; Rastaldo R.; Giachino C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1785890
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