In addition to exerting several essential house-keeping activities in the cell, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are crucial players in a well-structured molecular program activated in response to stressful challenges. Among the different activities carried out by HSPs during emergency, they reach the extracellular milieu, from where they scout the surroundings, regulate extracellular protein activity and send autocrine and paracrine signals. Cancer cells permanently experience stress conditions due to their altered equilibrium and behaviour, and constantly secrete heat shock proteins as a result. Other than supporting anti-tumour immunity, extracellular heat shock proteins (eHSPs), can also exacerbate cancer cell growth and malignancy by sustaining different cancer hallmarks. eHSPs are implicated in extracellular matrix remodelling, resistance to apoptosis, promotion of cell migration and invasion, induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis and activation of stromal cells, supporting ultimately, metastasis dissemination. A broader understanding of eHSP activity and contribution to tumour development and progression is leading to new opportunities in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

The dark-side of the outside: how extracellular heat shock proteins promote cancer

Fusella F.
Co-first
;
Avalle L.;Brancaccio M.
Last
2021

Abstract

In addition to exerting several essential house-keeping activities in the cell, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are crucial players in a well-structured molecular program activated in response to stressful challenges. Among the different activities carried out by HSPs during emergency, they reach the extracellular milieu, from where they scout the surroundings, regulate extracellular protein activity and send autocrine and paracrine signals. Cancer cells permanently experience stress conditions due to their altered equilibrium and behaviour, and constantly secrete heat shock proteins as a result. Other than supporting anti-tumour immunity, extracellular heat shock proteins (eHSPs), can also exacerbate cancer cell growth and malignancy by sustaining different cancer hallmarks. eHSPs are implicated in extracellular matrix remodelling, resistance to apoptosis, promotion of cell migration and invasion, induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis and activation of stromal cells, supporting ultimately, metastasis dissemination. A broader understanding of eHSP activity and contribution to tumour development and progression is leading to new opportunities in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
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Cancer hallmarks; Chaperones; Extracellular; Heat shock proteins; Tumour microenvironment
Secli L.; Fusella F.; Avalle L.; Brancaccio M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1789251
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