Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the β-subgroup of the herpesvirus family. After the initial infection, the virus establishes latency in poorly differentiated myeloid precursors from where it can reactivate at later times to cause recurrences. In immunocompetent subjects, primary HCMV infection is usually asymptomatic, while in immunocompromised patients, HCMV infection can lead to severe, life-threatening diseases, whose clinical severity parallels the degree of immunosuppression. The existence of a strict interplay between HCMV and the immune system has led many to hypothesize that HCMV could also be involved in autoimmune diseases (ADs). Indeed, signs of active viral infection were later found in a variety of different ADs, such as rheumatological, neurological, enteric disorders, and metabolic diseases. In addition, HCMV infection has been frequently linked to increased production of autoantibodies, which play a driving role in AD progression, as observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Documented mechanisms of HCMV-associated autoimmunity include molecular mimicry, inflammation, and nonspecific B-cell activation. In this review, we summarize the available literature on the various ADs arising from or exacerbating upon HCMV infection, focusing on the potential role of HCMV-mediated immune activation at disease onset.

Human Cytomegalovirus and Autoimmune Diseases: Where Are We?

Francesca Gugliesi
Co-first
;
Selina Pasquero
Co-first
;
Sara Scutera;Camilla Albano;Sergio Fernando Castillo Pacheco;Giuseppe Riva;Valentina Dell'Oste;Matteo Biolatti
Last
2021

Abstract

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the β-subgroup of the herpesvirus family. After the initial infection, the virus establishes latency in poorly differentiated myeloid precursors from where it can reactivate at later times to cause recurrences. In immunocompetent subjects, primary HCMV infection is usually asymptomatic, while in immunocompromised patients, HCMV infection can lead to severe, life-threatening diseases, whose clinical severity parallels the degree of immunosuppression. The existence of a strict interplay between HCMV and the immune system has led many to hypothesize that HCMV could also be involved in autoimmune diseases (ADs). Indeed, signs of active viral infection were later found in a variety of different ADs, such as rheumatological, neurological, enteric disorders, and metabolic diseases. In addition, HCMV infection has been frequently linked to increased production of autoantibodies, which play a driving role in AD progression, as observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Documented mechanisms of HCMV-associated autoimmunity include molecular mimicry, inflammation, and nonspecific B-cell activation. In this review, we summarize the available literature on the various ADs arising from or exacerbating upon HCMV infection, focusing on the potential role of HCMV-mediated immune activation at disease onset.
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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914970/
human cytomegalovirus; autoimmunity; autoimmune diseases
Francesca Gugliesi , Selina Pasquero , Gloria Griffante , Sara Scutera , Camilla Albano , Sergio Fernando Castillo Pacheco , Giuseppe Riva , Valentina Dell'Oste , Matteo Biolatti
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1792247
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