Carbon exhibits a remarkable range of structural forms, due to the availability of sp(3), sp(2) and sp(1) chemical bonds. Contrarily to other group IV elements such as silicon and germanium, the formation of an amorphous phase based exclusively on sp(3) bonds is extremely challenging due to the strongly favored formation of graphitic-like structures at room temperature and pressure. As such, the formation of a fully sp(3)-bonded carbon phase requires an extremely careful (and largely unexplored) definition of the pressure and temperature across the phase diagram. Here, we report on the possibility of creating full-sp(3) amorphous nanostructures within the bulk crystal of diamond with room-temperature ion-beam irradiation, followed by an annealing process that does not involve the application of any external mechanical pressure. As confirmed by numerical simulations, the (previously unreported) radiation-damage-induced formation of an amorphous sp(2)-free phase in diamond is determined by the buildup of extremely high internal stresses from the surrounding lattice, which (in the case of nanometer-scale regions) fully prevent the graphitization process. Besides the relevance of understanding the formation of exotic carbon phases, the use of focused/collimated ion beams discloses appealing perspectives for the direct fabrication of such nanostructures in complex three-dimensional geometries.

Creation of pure non-crystalline diamond nanostructures via room-temperature ion irradiation and subsequent thermal annealing

Picollo, F.;Battiato, A.;Bosia, F.;Scaffidi Muta, F.;Olivero, P.
;
Rubanov, S.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Carbon exhibits a remarkable range of structural forms, due to the availability of sp(3), sp(2) and sp(1) chemical bonds. Contrarily to other group IV elements such as silicon and germanium, the formation of an amorphous phase based exclusively on sp(3) bonds is extremely challenging due to the strongly favored formation of graphitic-like structures at room temperature and pressure. As such, the formation of a fully sp(3)-bonded carbon phase requires an extremely careful (and largely unexplored) definition of the pressure and temperature across the phase diagram. Here, we report on the possibility of creating full-sp(3) amorphous nanostructures within the bulk crystal of diamond with room-temperature ion-beam irradiation, followed by an annealing process that does not involve the application of any external mechanical pressure. As confirmed by numerical simulations, the (previously unreported) radiation-damage-induced formation of an amorphous sp(2)-free phase in diamond is determined by the buildup of extremely high internal stresses from the surrounding lattice, which (in the case of nanometer-scale regions) fully prevent the graphitization process. Besides the relevance of understanding the formation of exotic carbon phases, the use of focused/collimated ion beams discloses appealing perspectives for the direct fabrication of such nanostructures in complex three-dimensional geometries.
3
4156
4165
https://doi.org/10.1039/D1NA00136A
carbon, diamond, graphite, ion irradiation
Picollo, F.; Battiato, A.; Bosia, F.; Scaffidi Muta, F.; Olivero, P.; Rigato, V.; Rubanov, S.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
NA_3_4156.pdf

Accesso aperto

Tipo di file: PDF EDITORIALE
Dimensione 885.02 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
885.02 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1793740
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact