Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is a life-saving rescue therapy in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). ECMO has been associated with development of lymphocytopenia that is also common in COVID-19. Hyperinflammation may complicate SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, prompting therapy with steroids and immunomodulatory drugs. We aimed to evaluate the association of therapies such as steroids and Tocilizumab with trajectories of the total leukocytes, lymphocyte subpopulation count, and inflammatory and fibrinolysis markers in COVID-19-related ARDS, requiring or not VV-ECMO support. The association of the trajectories of the leukocytes, lymphocyte subpopulation count, and inflammatory and fibrinolysis markers with treatment with steroids (Steroids), Tocilizumab (Tocilizumab), both drugs (Steroids + Tocilizumab), and absence of treatment (No Treatment) were analyzed using mixed effects regression models, where ECMO was considered as a potential effect modifier. One hundred and thirty-nine leukocyte and eighty-one lymphocyte subpopulation counts were obtained from thirty-one patients who required (VV-ECMO, N = 13) or not (no VV-ECMO, N = 18) extracorporeal support. In both groups, treatment with Steroids + Tocilizumab was independently associated with a significant reduction of 46% and 67% in total lymphocytes, 22% and 60% in CD3+, and 61% and 91% in CD19+ (B lymphocytes) compared to those obtained without treatment, respectively. In the no VV-ECMO group, Tocilizumab was associated with a 79% increase in total lymphocytes and with a reduction in procalcitonin compared to no treatment. CD45+, CD3+CD4+ (Th cell), CD3+CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, the NK cell subpopulation, neutrophils, monocytes, and basophils were significantly reduced by Steroids + Tocilizumab without an effect modification by VV-ECMO support. In critically ill COVID-19 patients with ARDS, concomitant therapies with steroids and Tocilizumab, beside mitigating the inflammation and fibrinolysis, could reduce the total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and subpopulation count. Moreover, the effect of Tocilizumab in increasing the total lymphocytes and reducing procalcitonin might be blunted by VV-ECMO.

Effects of steroids and tocilizumab on the immune response profile of patients with covid-19-associated ards requiring or not veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Fanelli V.;Montrucchio G.;Sales G.;Simonetti U.;Bonetto C.;Rumbolo F.;Mengozzi G.;Pizzi C.;Richiardi L.;Cappello P.;Brazzi L.
2021

Abstract

Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is a life-saving rescue therapy in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). ECMO has been associated with development of lymphocytopenia that is also common in COVID-19. Hyperinflammation may complicate SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, prompting therapy with steroids and immunomodulatory drugs. We aimed to evaluate the association of therapies such as steroids and Tocilizumab with trajectories of the total leukocytes, lymphocyte subpopulation count, and inflammatory and fibrinolysis markers in COVID-19-related ARDS, requiring or not VV-ECMO support. The association of the trajectories of the leukocytes, lymphocyte subpopulation count, and inflammatory and fibrinolysis markers with treatment with steroids (Steroids), Tocilizumab (Tocilizumab), both drugs (Steroids + Tocilizumab), and absence of treatment (No Treatment) were analyzed using mixed effects regression models, where ECMO was considered as a potential effect modifier. One hundred and thirty-nine leukocyte and eighty-one lymphocyte subpopulation counts were obtained from thirty-one patients who required (VV-ECMO, N = 13) or not (no VV-ECMO, N = 18) extracorporeal support. In both groups, treatment with Steroids + Tocilizumab was independently associated with a significant reduction of 46% and 67% in total lymphocytes, 22% and 60% in CD3+, and 61% and 91% in CD19+ (B lymphocytes) compared to those obtained without treatment, respectively. In the no VV-ECMO group, Tocilizumab was associated with a 79% increase in total lymphocytes and with a reduction in procalcitonin compared to no treatment. CD45+, CD3+CD4+ (Th cell), CD3+CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, the NK cell subpopulation, neutrophils, monocytes, and basophils were significantly reduced by Steroids + Tocilizumab without an effect modification by VV-ECMO support. In critically ill COVID-19 patients with ARDS, concomitant therapies with steroids and Tocilizumab, beside mitigating the inflammation and fibrinolysis, could reduce the total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and subpopulation count. Moreover, the effect of Tocilizumab in increasing the total lymphocytes and reducing procalcitonin might be blunted by VV-ECMO.
11
8
603
612
Acute respiratory distress syndrome; COVID-19; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Lymphocytes; Steroids; Tocilizumab
Fanelli V.; Montrucchio G.; Sales G.; Simonetti U.; Bonetto C.; Rumbolo F.; Mengozzi G.; Urbino R.; Pizzi C.; Richiardi L.; Cappello P.; Brazzi L.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
171 - 2021 Effects of steroids - Fanelli.pdf

Accesso aperto

Tipo di file: PDF EDITORIALE
Dimensione 572.9 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
572.9 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1797896
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 3
social impact