The preservation of genetic variability of autochthonous poultry breeds is crucial in global biodiversity. A recent report revealed small breed size and potential risk of extinction of all native Italian poultry breeds; therefore, a correct assessment of their genetic diversity is necessary for a suitable management of their preservation. In this work, we provided an overview of the contribution to poultry biodiversity of some Italian autochthonous breeds reared in conservation centers devoted to local biodiversity preservation. The level of genetic diversity, molecular kinship, inbreeding, contribution to overall genetic diversity, and rate of extinction of each breed were analyzed with a set of 14 microsatellite loci in 17 autochthonous chicken breeds. To evaluate genetic variability, total number (Na), and effective number (Ne) of alleles, observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity, and F (Wright’s inbreeding coefficient) index were surveyed. The contribution of each analyzed breed to genetic diversity of the whole dataset was assessed using MolKin3.0; global genetic diversity and allelic richness contributions were evaluated. All the investigated loci were polymorphic; 209 alleles were identified (94 of which private alleles). The average number of alleles per locus was 3.62, and the effective number of alleles was 2.27. The Ne resulted lower in all breeds due to the presence of low-frequency alleles that can be easily lost by genetic drift, thus reducing the genetic variability of the breeds, and increasing their risk of extinction. The global molecular kinship was 27%, the average breed molecular kinship was 53%, and the mean inbreeding rate 43%, with a self-coancestry of 78%. Wright’s statistical analysis showed a 41% excess of homozygous due to breed genetic differences (34%) and to inbreeding within the breed (9%). Genetic variability analysis showed that 11 breeds were in endangered status. The contribution to Italian poultry genetic diversity, estimated as global genetic diversity, and ranged from 30.2 to 98.5%. In conclusion, the investigated breeds maintain a unique genetic pattern and play an important role in global Italian poultry biodiversity, providing a remarkable contribution to genetic variability.

Genetic Diversity of 17 Autochthonous Italian Chicken Breeds and Their Extinction Risk Status

Soglia, Dominga
First
;
Sartore, Stefano
;
Castillo, Annelisse;Maione, Sandra;Bianchi, Chiara;Profiti, Margherita;Sacchi, Paola;Schiavone, Achille
Last
2021-01-01

Abstract

The preservation of genetic variability of autochthonous poultry breeds is crucial in global biodiversity. A recent report revealed small breed size and potential risk of extinction of all native Italian poultry breeds; therefore, a correct assessment of their genetic diversity is necessary for a suitable management of their preservation. In this work, we provided an overview of the contribution to poultry biodiversity of some Italian autochthonous breeds reared in conservation centers devoted to local biodiversity preservation. The level of genetic diversity, molecular kinship, inbreeding, contribution to overall genetic diversity, and rate of extinction of each breed were analyzed with a set of 14 microsatellite loci in 17 autochthonous chicken breeds. To evaluate genetic variability, total number (Na), and effective number (Ne) of alleles, observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity, and F (Wright’s inbreeding coefficient) index were surveyed. The contribution of each analyzed breed to genetic diversity of the whole dataset was assessed using MolKin3.0; global genetic diversity and allelic richness contributions were evaluated. All the investigated loci were polymorphic; 209 alleles were identified (94 of which private alleles). The average number of alleles per locus was 3.62, and the effective number of alleles was 2.27. The Ne resulted lower in all breeds due to the presence of low-frequency alleles that can be easily lost by genetic drift, thus reducing the genetic variability of the breeds, and increasing their risk of extinction. The global molecular kinship was 27%, the average breed molecular kinship was 53%, and the mean inbreeding rate 43%, with a self-coancestry of 78%. Wright’s statistical analysis showed a 41% excess of homozygous due to breed genetic differences (34%) and to inbreeding within the breed (9%). Genetic variability analysis showed that 11 breeds were in endangered status. The contribution to Italian poultry genetic diversity, estimated as global genetic diversity, and ranged from 30.2 to 98.5%. In conclusion, the investigated breeds maintain a unique genetic pattern and play an important role in global Italian poultry biodiversity, providing a remarkable contribution to genetic variability.
12
715656
1
13
genetic resources, local poultry breeds, microsatellites, genetic variability, conservation
Soglia, Dominga; Sartore, Stefano; Lasagna, Emiliano; Castellini, Cesare; Cendron, Filippo; Perini, Francesco; Cassandro, Martino; Marzoni, Margherita; Iaffaldano, Nicolaia; Buccioni, Arianna; Dabbou, Sihem; Castillo, Annelisse; Maione, Sandra; Bianchi, Chiara; Profiti, Margherita; Sacchi, Paola; Cerolini, Silvia; Schiavone, Achille
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1801413
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