Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) is a clinical condition characterized by insufficient blood flow to the cardiac tissue, and the consequent inappropriate oxygen and nutrients supply and metabolic waste removal in the heart. In the last decade a broad scientific literature has underlined the distinct mechanism of onset and the peculiar progress of IHD between female and male patients, highlighting the estrogenic hormonal setting as a key factor of these sex-dependent divergences. In particular, estrogen-activated cardioprotective pathways exert a pivotal role for the microvascular health, and their impairment, both physiologically and pathologically driven, predispose to vascular dysfunctions. Aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the estrogen receptors localization and function in the cardiovascular system, particularly focusing on sex-dependent differences in microvascular vs macrovascular dysfunction and on the experimental models that allowed the researchers to reach the current findings and sketching the leading estrogen-mediated cardioprotective mechanisms.
Giulia Querio;Susanna Antoniotti;Federica Geddo;Francesca Tullio;Claudia Penna;Pasquale Pagliaro;Maria Pia Gallo
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