The γ phosphorylated form of the histone H2AX (γH2AX) was described more than 40 years ago and it was demonstrated that phosphorylation of H2AX was one of the first cellular responses to DNA damage. Since then, γH2AX has been implicated in diverse cellular functions in normal and pathological cells. In the first part of this review, we will briefly describe the intervention of H2AX in the DNA damage response (DDR) and its role in some pivotal cellular events, such as regulation of cell cycle checkpoints, genomic instability, cell growth, mitosis, embryogenesis, and apoptosis. Then, in the main part of this contribution, we will discuss the involvement of γH2AX in the normal and pathological central nervous system, with particular attention to the differences in the DDR between immature and mature neurons, and to the significance of H2AX phosphorylation in neurogenesis and neuronal cell death. The emerging picture is that H2AX is a pleiotropic molecule with an array of yet not fully understood functions in the brain, from embryonic life to old age.

The phosphorylated form of the histone h2ax (γh2ax) in the brain from embryonic life to old age

Merighi A.
First
;
Gionchiglia N.;Granato A.;Lossi L.
Last
2021-01-01

Abstract

The γ phosphorylated form of the histone H2AX (γH2AX) was described more than 40 years ago and it was demonstrated that phosphorylation of H2AX was one of the first cellular responses to DNA damage. Since then, γH2AX has been implicated in diverse cellular functions in normal and pathological cells. In the first part of this review, we will briefly describe the intervention of H2AX in the DNA damage response (DDR) and its role in some pivotal cellular events, such as regulation of cell cycle checkpoints, genomic instability, cell growth, mitosis, embryogenesis, and apoptosis. Then, in the main part of this contribution, we will discuss the involvement of γH2AX in the normal and pathological central nervous system, with particular attention to the differences in the DDR between immature and mature neurons, and to the significance of H2AX phosphorylation in neurogenesis and neuronal cell death. The emerging picture is that H2AX is a pleiotropic molecule with an array of yet not fully understood functions in the brain, from embryonic life to old age.
2021
26
23
7198
7227
https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/26/23/7198
Aging; Apoptosis; Cerebral cortex; DNA damage; H2AX; Mitosis; Neurogenesis; Neurons; Subventricular zone
Merighi A.; Gionchiglia N.; Granato A.; Lossi L.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1833181
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