Aging and increased cardiovascular risk are major drivers for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which accurate screenings are lacking. Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (MACE) reliably detects vascular and neurodegenerative cognitive decline among HIV-negative patients. We evaluated MACE diagnostic accuracy in detecting HAND in people living with HIV (PLWH) and we compared it with the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS). A single-centre double-blind study of diagnostic accuracy on adult outpatient PLWH without neurocognitive confounding was performed. MACE and IHDS were administered in 5 and 10 min by clinicians, followed by the reference standard battery (14 tests) by neuropsychologists. HAND diagnosis was based on the modified version of Frascati’s criteria by Gisslén to reduce false positives. Exploratory cut-offs were evaluated for MACE. Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility parameters were assessed. 231 patients were enrolled. 75.7% men with a median age, education, and length of infection of 54 (48–59), 10 (8–13) and 16 (5–25) years. HAND prevalence was 48.5% (38.9% asymptomatic impairment). Compared to IHDS, MACE sensitivity (89.3% vs 70.5%), specificity (94.1% vs 63.0%), correct classification rate (86.5% vs 66.7%), J index (0.83 vs 0.34), AUROC (0.97 vs 0.79), agreement with the gold standard (k 0.84 vs 0.33) and effect size in distinguishing HAND vs non-HAND (d 2.11 vs 1.15) were higher. Among PLWH aged 65 years and above (n = 37) MACE performance was consistently better than IHDS. The quick and easy-to-perform MACE could possess an accurate and useful screening performance for HAND in otherwise neurocognitively healthy cohorts of PLWH.

Screening Accuracy of Mini Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination Test for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in People Ageing with HIV

Trunfio M.;Medina C.;Alcantarini C.;Bonora S.;Di Perri G.;Calcagno A.
2022

Abstract

Aging and increased cardiovascular risk are major drivers for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which accurate screenings are lacking. Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (MACE) reliably detects vascular and neurodegenerative cognitive decline among HIV-negative patients. We evaluated MACE diagnostic accuracy in detecting HAND in people living with HIV (PLWH) and we compared it with the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS). A single-centre double-blind study of diagnostic accuracy on adult outpatient PLWH without neurocognitive confounding was performed. MACE and IHDS were administered in 5 and 10 min by clinicians, followed by the reference standard battery (14 tests) by neuropsychologists. HAND diagnosis was based on the modified version of Frascati’s criteria by Gisslén to reduce false positives. Exploratory cut-offs were evaluated for MACE. Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility parameters were assessed. 231 patients were enrolled. 75.7% men with a median age, education, and length of infection of 54 (48–59), 10 (8–13) and 16 (5–25) years. HAND prevalence was 48.5% (38.9% asymptomatic impairment). Compared to IHDS, MACE sensitivity (89.3% vs 70.5%), specificity (94.1% vs 63.0%), correct classification rate (86.5% vs 66.7%), J index (0.83 vs 0.34), AUROC (0.97 vs 0.79), agreement with the gold standard (k 0.84 vs 0.33) and effect size in distinguishing HAND vs non-HAND (d 2.11 vs 1.15) were higher. Among PLWH aged 65 years and above (n = 37) MACE performance was consistently better than IHDS. The quick and easy-to-perform MACE could possess an accurate and useful screening performance for HAND in otherwise neurocognitively healthy cohorts of PLWH.
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Aging; HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders; International HIV Dementia Scale; Mini Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination; Screening; Vascular cognitive impairment
Trunfio M.; De Francesco D.; Vai D.; Medina C.; Milesi M.; Domini S.; Alcantarini C.; Imperiale D.; Bonora S.; Di Perri G.; Calcagno A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1834974
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