This study aims at presenting a reliable fast-track diagnostics for the detection of CTX-M ESBL- (CTX-M-p) and carbapenemase-producers (CA-p) directly from blood cultures (BCs) of patients with Enterobacterales (EB) bloodstream infections (BSIs) admitted in emergency and internal medicine departments and its contribution in estimation of in vitro antibiotic susceptibility. A fast-track workflow including MALDI-TOF species identification and two lateral flow immunochromatographic assays for the detection of CTX-M-p and CA-p directly from BCs was performed in parallel with conventional routine, and results were compared. A total of 236 BCs of patients suffering from EB BSI were included. Accuracy of the fast-track workflow ranged from 99.6 to 100%. Among E. coli isolates, CTX-M-p (20.5%) were susceptible to ceftolozane-tazobactam (C/T, 97%), ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA, 100%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP, 84.8%), whereas CTX-M-and-main-carbapenemases-non-producer (CTX-M-CA-np, 79.5%) isolates were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. Among K. pneumoniae isolates, CTX-M-p (23.3%) were poorly susceptible to TZP (40%) but widely susceptible to C/T (90%), CZA (100%), and amikacin (90%), whereas CTX-M-CA-np (55.8%) were also susceptible to cefepime. CA-p K. pneumoniae (20.9%) were susceptible to CZA (88.9%). All the species other than E. coli and K. pneumoniae were CTX-M-CA-np and were widely susceptible to the antibiotics tested except for isolates of the inducible and derepressed AmpC- or AmpC/ESBL-p species. Rapid identification of species and phenotype together with knowledge of local epidemiology may be crucial to determine the likelihood of deduction of in vitro antibiotic susceptibility on the same day of positive BC processing.
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