Background: Immunoglobulin M multiple myeloma and Waldenström macroglobulinemia are two different hematological diseases with the common finding of an immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. However, clinical characteristics of the two entities can overlap. Case presentation: In this report, we describe two cases of immunoglobulin M neoplasm with the same histological bone marrow presentation but with different clinical behavior, cytogenetics, and biological assessment. On the basis of comprehensive diagnostic workup, these patients were considered to have different diseases and treated accordingly with different approaches. Patient 1 (Caucasian man) presented with increased serum protein and immunoglobulin M (7665 mg/L) with an M-spike electrophoresis of 4600 mg/L. His bone marrow biopsy revealed a small-cell immunoglobulin M multiple myeloma. The result of testing for the MYD88 L265P mutation was negative, while fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed translocation t(11,14). A diagnosis of immunoglobulin M-κ multiple myeloma was made. Patient 1 was a candidate for bortezomib plus thalidomide and dexamethasone, followed by autologous stem cell transplant consolidation. Patient 2 (Caucasian man) showed an M-spike by protein electrophoresis (300 mg/L, 4.9%), with serum immunoglobulin M level of 327 mg/L. His bone marrow biopsy revealed immunoglobulin M-κ multiple myeloma. Computed tomography showed many enlarged lymph nodes and splenomegaly. Patient 2's clinical features were suggestive of Waldenström macroglobulinemia, in contrast to the bone marrow biopsy results. The result of testing for the MYD88 L265P mutation was positive. Patient 2 was diagnosed with Waldenström macroglobulinemia and received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone. Conclusions: A correct differential diagnosis between immunoglobulin M multiple myeloma and Waldenström macroglobulinemia is a critical point in the setting of a new immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy onset. These patients should undergo a complete diagnostic workup with pathological, radiological, and serological examinations to establish the diagnosis and plan the most appropriate treatment in order to improve the prognosis.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) multiple myeloma versus Waldenström macroglobulinemia: Diagnostic challenges and therapeutic options: Two case reports

Elba S.;Castellino A.
;
Castellino C.;Drandi D.;Foglietta M.;Massaia M.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Background: Immunoglobulin M multiple myeloma and Waldenström macroglobulinemia are two different hematological diseases with the common finding of an immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. However, clinical characteristics of the two entities can overlap. Case presentation: In this report, we describe two cases of immunoglobulin M neoplasm with the same histological bone marrow presentation but with different clinical behavior, cytogenetics, and biological assessment. On the basis of comprehensive diagnostic workup, these patients were considered to have different diseases and treated accordingly with different approaches. Patient 1 (Caucasian man) presented with increased serum protein and immunoglobulin M (7665 mg/L) with an M-spike electrophoresis of 4600 mg/L. His bone marrow biopsy revealed a small-cell immunoglobulin M multiple myeloma. The result of testing for the MYD88 L265P mutation was negative, while fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed translocation t(11,14). A diagnosis of immunoglobulin M-κ multiple myeloma was made. Patient 1 was a candidate for bortezomib plus thalidomide and dexamethasone, followed by autologous stem cell transplant consolidation. Patient 2 (Caucasian man) showed an M-spike by protein electrophoresis (300 mg/L, 4.9%), with serum immunoglobulin M level of 327 mg/L. His bone marrow biopsy revealed immunoglobulin M-κ multiple myeloma. Computed tomography showed many enlarged lymph nodes and splenomegaly. Patient 2's clinical features were suggestive of Waldenström macroglobulinemia, in contrast to the bone marrow biopsy results. The result of testing for the MYD88 L265P mutation was positive. Patient 2 was diagnosed with Waldenström macroglobulinemia and received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone. Conclusions: A correct differential diagnosis between immunoglobulin M multiple myeloma and Waldenström macroglobulinemia is a critical point in the setting of a new immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy onset. These patients should undergo a complete diagnostic workup with pathological, radiological, and serological examinations to establish the diagnosis and plan the most appropriate treatment in order to improve the prognosis.
2020
14
1
75
81
IgM monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS); IgM multiple myeloma; Waldenström macroglobulinemia; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Biopsy; Bone Marrow; Bortezomib; Cyclophosphamide; Dexamethasone; Glucocorticoids; Humans; Immunoglobulin M; Immunosuppressive Agents; Male; Multiple Myeloma; Mutation; Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88; Rituximab; Stem Cell Transplantation; Thalidomide; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
Elba S.; Castellino A.; Soriasio R.; Castellino C.; Bonferroni M.; Mattei D.; Strola G.; Drandi D.; Mordini N.; Foglietta M.; Rapezzi D.; Celeghini I.; Grasso M.; Giordano F.; Fraternali Orcioni G.; Massaia M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1846165
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