Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of heart-related deaths worldwide. Following MI, the hypoxic microenvironment triggers apoptosis, disrupts the extracellular matrix and forms a non-functional scar that leads towards adverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling. If left untreated this eventually leads to heart failure. Besides extensive advancement in medical therapy, complete functional recovery is never accomplished, as the heart possesses limited regenerative ability. In recent decades, the focus has shifted towards tissue engineering and regenerative strategies that provide an attractive option to improve cardiac regeneration, limit adverse LV remodelling and restore function in an infarcted heart. Acellular scaffolds possess attractive features that have made them a promising therapeutic candidate. Their application in infarcted areas has been shown to improve LV remodelling and enhance functional recovery in post-MI hearts. This review will summarise the updates on acellular scaffolds developed and tested in pre-clinical and clinical scenarios in the past five years with a focus on their ability to overcome damage caused by MI. It will also describe how acellular scaffolds alone or in combination with biomolecules have been employed for MI treatment. A better understanding of acellular scaffolds potentialities may guide the development of customised and optimised therapeutic strategies for MI treatment.

Therapeutic acellular scaffolds for limiting left ventricular remodelling-current status and future directions

Perveen S.;Rossin D.;Vitale E.;Rosso R.;Rastaldo R.;Giachino C.
2021

Abstract

Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of heart-related deaths worldwide. Following MI, the hypoxic microenvironment triggers apoptosis, disrupts the extracellular matrix and forms a non-functional scar that leads towards adverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling. If left untreated this eventually leads to heart failure. Besides extensive advancement in medical therapy, complete functional recovery is never accomplished, as the heart possesses limited regenerative ability. In recent decades, the focus has shifted towards tissue engineering and regenerative strategies that provide an attractive option to improve cardiac regeneration, limit adverse LV remodelling and restore function in an infarcted heart. Acellular scaffolds possess attractive features that have made them a promising therapeutic candidate. Their application in infarcted areas has been shown to improve LV remodelling and enhance functional recovery in post-MI hearts. This review will summarise the updates on acellular scaffolds developed and tested in pre-clinical and clinical scenarios in the past five years with a focus on their ability to overcome damage caused by MI. It will also describe how acellular scaffolds alone or in combination with biomolecules have been employed for MI treatment. A better understanding of acellular scaffolds potentialities may guide the development of customised and optimised therapeutic strategies for MI treatment.
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Acellular scaffolds; Cardiac regeneration; Conductive polymers; Extracellular matrix; Myocardial infarction; Nanoparticles; Tissue engineering; Ventricular remodelling
Perveen S.; Rossin D.; Vitale E.; Rosso R.; Vanni R.; Cristallini C.; Rastaldo R.; Giachino C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1850908
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