Iron is the most abundant transition metal in all living organisms and is essential for several cellular activities, including respiration, oxygen transport, energy production and regulation of gene expression. Iron starvation is used by professional phagocytes, from Dictyostelium to macrophages, as a form of defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. Previously, we showed that Dictyostelium cells express the proton-driven iron transporter Nramp1 (Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein 1) and the homolog NrampB (Nramp2) in mem- branes of macropinosomes and phagosomes or of the contractile vacuole network, respectively. The Nramp- driven transport of iron across membranes is selective for ferrous ions. Since iron is mostly present as ferric ions in growth media and in engulfed bacteria, we have looked for proteins with ferric reductase activity. The Dictyostelium genome does not encode for classical STEAP (Six-Transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of Prostate) ferric reductases, but harbors three genes encoding putative ferric chelate reductase belonging to the Cytochrome b561 family containing a N terminus DOMON domain (DOpamine β-MONooxygenase N-terminal domain). We have cloned the three genes, naming them fr1A, fr1B and fr1C. fr1A and fr1B are mainly expressed in the vegetative stage while fr1C is highly expressed in the post aggregative stage. All three reductases are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, but Fr1A is also found in endolysosomal vesicles, in the Golgi and, to a much lower degree, in the plasma membrane, whereas Fr1C is homogeneously distributed in the plasma membrane and in macropinosomal and phagosomal membranes. To gain insight in the function of the three genes we generated KO mutants, but gene disruption was successful only for two of them (fr1A and fr1C), being very likely lethal for fr1B. fr1A- shows a slight delay in the aggregation stage of development, while fr1C- gives rise to large multi- tipped streams during aggregation and displays a strong delay in fruiting body formation. The two single mu- tants display altered cell growth under conditions of ferric ions overloading and, in the ability to reduce Fe3+, confirming a role of these putative ferric reductases in iron reduction and transport from endo-lysosomal vesicles to the cytosol.

Iron metabolism in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum: A role for ferric chelate reductases

Peracino, Barbara;Monica, Valentina;Primo, Luca;Bozzaro, Salvatore
2022

Abstract

Iron is the most abundant transition metal in all living organisms and is essential for several cellular activities, including respiration, oxygen transport, energy production and regulation of gene expression. Iron starvation is used by professional phagocytes, from Dictyostelium to macrophages, as a form of defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. Previously, we showed that Dictyostelium cells express the proton-driven iron transporter Nramp1 (Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein 1) and the homolog NrampB (Nramp2) in mem- branes of macropinosomes and phagosomes or of the contractile vacuole network, respectively. The Nramp- driven transport of iron across membranes is selective for ferrous ions. Since iron is mostly present as ferric ions in growth media and in engulfed bacteria, we have looked for proteins with ferric reductase activity. The Dictyostelium genome does not encode for classical STEAP (Six-Transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of Prostate) ferric reductases, but harbors three genes encoding putative ferric chelate reductase belonging to the Cytochrome b561 family containing a N terminus DOMON domain (DOpamine β-MONooxygenase N-terminal domain). We have cloned the three genes, naming them fr1A, fr1B and fr1C. fr1A and fr1B are mainly expressed in the vegetative stage while fr1C is highly expressed in the post aggregative stage. All three reductases are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, but Fr1A is also found in endolysosomal vesicles, in the Golgi and, to a much lower degree, in the plasma membrane, whereas Fr1C is homogeneously distributed in the plasma membrane and in macropinosomal and phagosomal membranes. To gain insight in the function of the three genes we generated KO mutants, but gene disruption was successful only for two of them (fr1A and fr1C), being very likely lethal for fr1B. fr1A- shows a slight delay in the aggregation stage of development, while fr1C- gives rise to large multi- tipped streams during aggregation and displays a strong delay in fruiting body formation. The two single mu- tants display altered cell growth under conditions of ferric ions overloading and, in the ability to reduce Fe3+, confirming a role of these putative ferric reductases in iron reduction and transport from endo-lysosomal vesicles to the cytosol.
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https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0171-9335(22)00033-4
Ferric chelate reductase Dictyostelium discoideum Iron metabolism Iron binding proteins Nramp1
Peracino, Barbara; Monica, Valentina; Primo, Luca; Bracco, Enrico; Bozzaro, Salvatore
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1858906
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