People living with HIV (PLWH) age with an excess burden of comorbidities that may increase the incidence of age-related complications. There is controversy surrounding the hypoth-esis that HIV can accelerate neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). We performed a retrospective study to analyze the distribution of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers (beta amyloid 1–42 fragment, tau, and phosphorylated tau) in adult PLWH (on cART with undetectable viremia, n = 136, with detectable viremia, n = 121, and with central nervous system CNS disorders regardless of viremia, n = 72) who underwent a lumbar puncture between 2008 to 2018; HIV-negative controls with AD were included (n = 84). Five subjects (1.5%) presented CSF biomarkers that were compatible with AD: one was diagnosed with AD, whereas the others showed HIV encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and neurotoxoplasmosis. Regardless of confounders, 79.6% of study participants presented normal CSF AD biomarkers. Isolated abnormalities in CSF beta amyloid 1–42 (7.9%) and tau (10.9%) were associated with age, biomarkers of intrathecal injury, and inflammation, although no HIV-specific feature was associated with abnormal CSF patterns. CSF levels of AD biomarkers very poorly overlapped between HIV-positive clinical categories and AD controls. Despite the correlations with neurocognitive performance, the inter-relationship between amyloid and tau proteins in PLWH seem to differ from that observed in AD subjects; the main driver of the isolated increase in tau seems represented by non-specific CNS inflammation, whereas the mechanisms underlying isolated amyloid consumption remain unclear.

Patterns of Cerebrospinal Fluid Alzheimer’s Dementia Biomarkers in People Living with HIV: Cross-Sectional Study on Associated Factors According to Viral Control, Neurological Confounders and Neurocognition

Trunfio M.;Atzori C.;Pasquero M.;Di Stefano A.;Imperiale D.;Bonora S.;Calcagno A.
2022

Abstract

People living with HIV (PLWH) age with an excess burden of comorbidities that may increase the incidence of age-related complications. There is controversy surrounding the hypoth-esis that HIV can accelerate neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). We performed a retrospective study to analyze the distribution of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers (beta amyloid 1–42 fragment, tau, and phosphorylated tau) in adult PLWH (on cART with undetectable viremia, n = 136, with detectable viremia, n = 121, and with central nervous system CNS disorders regardless of viremia, n = 72) who underwent a lumbar puncture between 2008 to 2018; HIV-negative controls with AD were included (n = 84). Five subjects (1.5%) presented CSF biomarkers that were compatible with AD: one was diagnosed with AD, whereas the others showed HIV encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and neurotoxoplasmosis. Regardless of confounders, 79.6% of study participants presented normal CSF AD biomarkers. Isolated abnormalities in CSF beta amyloid 1–42 (7.9%) and tau (10.9%) were associated with age, biomarkers of intrathecal injury, and inflammation, although no HIV-specific feature was associated with abnormal CSF patterns. CSF levels of AD biomarkers very poorly overlapped between HIV-positive clinical categories and AD controls. Despite the correlations with neurocognitive performance, the inter-relationship between amyloid and tau proteins in PLWH seem to differ from that observed in AD subjects; the main driver of the isolated increase in tau seems represented by non-specific CNS inflammation, whereas the mechanisms underlying isolated amyloid consumption remain unclear.
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Alzheimer’s dementia; beta amyloid; biomarkers; central nervous system infections; cerebrospinal fluid; HIV; neurocognitive disorders; neurodegenerative disorders; phospho-rylated tau; tau; Adult; Amyloid beta-Peptides; Biomarkers; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Retrospective Studies; Viremia; Alzheimer Disease; HIV Infections
Trunfio M.; Atzori C.; Pasquero M.; Di Stefano A.; Vai D.; Nigra M.; Imperiale D.; Bonora S.; Perri G.D.; Calcagno A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1862098
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