Inflammation is a comprehensive set of physiological processes that an organism undertakes in response to a wide variety of foreign stimuli, such as viruses, bacteria, and inorganic particles. A key role is played by cytokines, protein-based chemical mediators produced by a broad range of cells, including the immune cells recruited in the inflammation site. The aim of this systematic review is to compare baseline values of pro/anti-inflammatory biomarkers measured in Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) in healthy, non-smoking adults to provide a summary of the concentrations reported in the literature. We focused on: interleukin (IL)-1 , IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- ), and C reactive protein (CRP). Eligible articles were identified in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL. Due to the wide differences in methodologies employed in the included articles concerning EBC sampling, storage, and analyses, research protocols were assessed specifically to test their adherence to the ATS/ERS Task Force guidelines on EBC. The development of reference intervals for these biomarkers can result in their introduction and use in both research and clinical settings, not only for monitoring purposes but also, in the perspective of future longitudinal studies, as predictive parameters for the onset and development of chronic diseases with inflammatory aetiology.

Inflammatory Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath Condensate: A Systematic Review

Ghelli, Federica
Co-first
;
Panizzolo, Marco
Co-first
;
Garzaro, Giacomo;Squillacioti, Giulia;Bellisario, Valeria;Colombi, Nicoletta;Bergamaschi, Enrico
;
Bono, Roberto
Co-last
2022-01-01

Abstract

Inflammation is a comprehensive set of physiological processes that an organism undertakes in response to a wide variety of foreign stimuli, such as viruses, bacteria, and inorganic particles. A key role is played by cytokines, protein-based chemical mediators produced by a broad range of cells, including the immune cells recruited in the inflammation site. The aim of this systematic review is to compare baseline values of pro/anti-inflammatory biomarkers measured in Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) in healthy, non-smoking adults to provide a summary of the concentrations reported in the literature. We focused on: interleukin (IL)-1 , IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- ), and C reactive protein (CRP). Eligible articles were identified in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL. Due to the wide differences in methodologies employed in the included articles concerning EBC sampling, storage, and analyses, research protocols were assessed specifically to test their adherence to the ATS/ERS Task Force guidelines on EBC. The development of reference intervals for these biomarkers can result in their introduction and use in both research and clinical settings, not only for monitoring purposes but also, in the perspective of future longitudinal studies, as predictive parameters for the onset and development of chronic diseases with inflammatory aetiology.
2022
23
17
1
19
https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/23/17/9820
inflammation; cytokines; exhaled breath condensate; non-invasive; reference values; non-smoking healthy adults
Ghelli, Federica; Panizzolo, Marco; Garzaro, Giacomo; Squillacioti, Giulia; Bellisario, Valeria; Colombi, Nicoletta; Bergamaschi, Enrico; Guseva Canu, Irina; Bono, Roberto
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1873178
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