We studied how individuals modify their behavior in response to inter- and intraspecific competitors and how these changes affected the pattern of variation between populations and species. As study models, we used tadpoles of two brown frogs, Rana latastei and R. dalmatina. Since R. latastei is always sympatric to R. dalmatina, whereas R. dalmatina is sympatric to R. latastei only in the periphery of its range, we predicted a stronger response to heterospecifics in R. latastei than in R. dalmatina and, within each species, in syntopic than in allotopic populations. To test these predictions, we raised tadpoles, from either syntopic or allotopic populations, in either syntopy or allotopy and repeatedly tested them in open field trials in the presence of a caged conspecific, a caged heterospecific, or an empty cage. As predicted, we found that, on average, R. latastei tadpoles modified their behavior across treatments more than R. dalmatina tadpoles and individuals from the syntopic population changed more than their conspecifics from the allotopic population. In both species, the pattern of variation at the individual level mirrored that at the population and species levels providing no evidence for an individual-by-environment interaction (I x E). Besides these differences, however, individuals of the two species also showed unpredicted and context-independent behavioral differences, suggesting that there might be more to interspecific behavioral variation than the effect of selection by heterospecific competitors.

The effects of inter- and intra-specific competition on personality and individual plasticity in two sympatric brown frogs

Castellano Sergio
;
Seglie Daniele;Racca Luca;Friard Olivier
2022-01-01

Abstract

We studied how individuals modify their behavior in response to inter- and intraspecific competitors and how these changes affected the pattern of variation between populations and species. As study models, we used tadpoles of two brown frogs, Rana latastei and R. dalmatina. Since R. latastei is always sympatric to R. dalmatina, whereas R. dalmatina is sympatric to R. latastei only in the periphery of its range, we predicted a stronger response to heterospecifics in R. latastei than in R. dalmatina and, within each species, in syntopic than in allotopic populations. To test these predictions, we raised tadpoles, from either syntopic or allotopic populations, in either syntopy or allotopy and repeatedly tested them in open field trials in the presence of a caged conspecific, a caged heterospecific, or an empty cage. As predicted, we found that, on average, R. latastei tadpoles modified their behavior across treatments more than R. dalmatina tadpoles and individuals from the syntopic population changed more than their conspecifics from the allotopic population. In both species, the pattern of variation at the individual level mirrored that at the population and species levels providing no evidence for an individual-by-environment interaction (I x E). Besides these differences, however, individuals of the two species also showed unpredicted and context-independent behavioral differences, suggesting that there might be more to interspecific behavioral variation than the effect of selection by heterospecific competitors.
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https://link-springer-com.bibliopass.unito.it/content/pdf/10.1007/s00265-022-03173-x.pdf
Animal personality, Behavioral flexibility, Competition, Anurans, Tadpoles
Castellano Sergio, Seglie Daniele, Gazzola Andrea, Racca Luca, Ciaralli Simone, Friard Olivier
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1878447
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