Since the pioneering work of Damadian (1971), the longitudinal T-1-relaxation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been reported to generate significant contrast between cancer and healthy tissues at low magnetic fields. However, low NMR sensitivity was a substantial obstacle. Fast field cycling NMR (FFC-NMR) can overcome this problem and is commercially available for physics/chemistry research since around the years 2000s. Herein, using FFC-NMR in vivo, we show that T-1-relaxation measured at very low fields is sensitive to transmembrane water exchange, thus allowing the discrimination between glioma invasion/migration and proliferation. Aquaporins 4 and 1 are found to be upregulated in invasion/migration, indicating that water exchange modulates T-1-relaxations in glioma, via these aquaporins action. Overall, results suggest that, by blocking the aquaporin functions, the T-1-relaxation should decrease in invasion/migration glioma. Results also stipulate that the entire invasion/migration volume could be visualized by FFC imaging, noninvasively. This may impact the medical community since invasion/migration delineation remains challenging by any medical imaging modality. This work shows that the longitudinal relaxation differences observed at very low magnetic fields between invasion/migration and proliferation processes on glioma mouse models in vivo are related to differences in the transmembrane water exchange basically linked to the aquaporin expression changes. Three glioma mouse models were used: Glio6 and Glio96 as invasion/migration models and U87 as cell proliferation model. In vivo proton longitudinal relaxation-rate constants (R-1) at very low fields were measured by fast field cycling NMR (FFC-NMR). The tumor contribution to the observed proton relaxation rate, R-1(tum) (U87: 12.26 +/- 0.64 s(-1); Glio6: 3.76 +/- 0.88 s(-1); Glio96: 6.90 +/- 0.64 s(-1) at 0.01 MHz), and the intracellular water lifetime, tau(in) (U87: 826 +/- 19 ms; Glio6: 516 +/- 8 ms; Glio96: 596 +/- 15 ms), were found to be good diagnostic hallmarks to distinguish invasion/migration from proliferation (p < 0.01 and 0.001). Overexpression of AQP4 and AQP1 were assessed in invasion/migration models, highlighting the pathophysiological role of these two aquaporins in water exchange that, in turn, determine the lower values in the observed R-1 relaxation rate constant in glioma invasion/migration. Overall, our findings demonstrate that tau(in) and R-1 (measured at very low fields) are relevant biomarkers, discriminating invasion/migration from proliferation in vivo. These results highlight the use of FFC-NMR and FFC-imaging to assess the efficiency of drugs that could modulate aquaporin functions.

Role of Transmembrane Water Exchange in Glioma Invasion/Migration: In Vivo Preclinical Study by Relaxometry at Very Low Magnetic Field

Ruggiero, Maria Rosaria
First
;
Baroni, Simona;Aime, Silvio;Geninatti Crich, Simonetta;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Since the pioneering work of Damadian (1971), the longitudinal T-1-relaxation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been reported to generate significant contrast between cancer and healthy tissues at low magnetic fields. However, low NMR sensitivity was a substantial obstacle. Fast field cycling NMR (FFC-NMR) can overcome this problem and is commercially available for physics/chemistry research since around the years 2000s. Herein, using FFC-NMR in vivo, we show that T-1-relaxation measured at very low fields is sensitive to transmembrane water exchange, thus allowing the discrimination between glioma invasion/migration and proliferation. Aquaporins 4 and 1 are found to be upregulated in invasion/migration, indicating that water exchange modulates T-1-relaxations in glioma, via these aquaporins action. Overall, results suggest that, by blocking the aquaporin functions, the T-1-relaxation should decrease in invasion/migration glioma. Results also stipulate that the entire invasion/migration volume could be visualized by FFC imaging, noninvasively. This may impact the medical community since invasion/migration delineation remains challenging by any medical imaging modality. This work shows that the longitudinal relaxation differences observed at very low magnetic fields between invasion/migration and proliferation processes on glioma mouse models in vivo are related to differences in the transmembrane water exchange basically linked to the aquaporin expression changes. Three glioma mouse models were used: Glio6 and Glio96 as invasion/migration models and U87 as cell proliferation model. In vivo proton longitudinal relaxation-rate constants (R-1) at very low fields were measured by fast field cycling NMR (FFC-NMR). The tumor contribution to the observed proton relaxation rate, R-1(tum) (U87: 12.26 +/- 0.64 s(-1); Glio6: 3.76 +/- 0.88 s(-1); Glio96: 6.90 +/- 0.64 s(-1) at 0.01 MHz), and the intracellular water lifetime, tau(in) (U87: 826 +/- 19 ms; Glio6: 516 +/- 8 ms; Glio96: 596 +/- 15 ms), were found to be good diagnostic hallmarks to distinguish invasion/migration from proliferation (p < 0.01 and 0.001). Overexpression of AQP4 and AQP1 were assessed in invasion/migration models, highlighting the pathophysiological role of these two aquaporins in water exchange that, in turn, determine the lower values in the observed R-1 relaxation rate constant in glioma invasion/migration. Overall, our findings demonstrate that tau(in) and R-1 (measured at very low fields) are relevant biomarkers, discriminating invasion/migration from proliferation in vivo. These results highlight the use of FFC-NMR and FFC-imaging to assess the efficiency of drugs that could modulate aquaporin functions.
2022
14
17
4180
4196
https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/14/17/4180
AQP1; AQP4; FFC-NMR; glioma invasion; glioma mouse model; relaxometry; transmembrane water exchange; very low magnetic field
Ruggiero, Maria Rosaria; Ait Itto, Hamza; Baroni, Simona; Pierre, Sandra; Boutonnat, Jean; Broche, Lionel M; Aime, Silvio; Berger, François; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Lahrech, Hana
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1879908
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